Julia L. Hurwitz

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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the etiological agent for a serious lower respiratory tract disease responsible for close to 200,000 annual deaths worldwide. The first infection is generally most severe, while re-infections usually associate with a milder disease. This observation and the finding that re-infection risks are inversely associated with(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a continuing global threat. Current vaccines will not protect against novel pandemic viruses. Creating " universal " vaccines has been unsuccessful because the immunological mechanisms promoting heterosubtypic immunity are incompletely defined. We show that rapamycin, an immunosuppressive drug that inhibits(More)
The parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) are highly contagious respiratory paramyxoviruses and a leading cause of lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease. Since no vaccines or antivirals exist, non-pharmaceutical interventions are the only means of control for these pathogens. Here we used bioluminescence imaging to visualize the spatial and temporal progression of(More)
Currently, there are more than 30 million people infected with HIV-1 and thousands more are infected each day. Vaccination is the single most effective mechanism for prevention of viral disease, and after more than 25 years of research, one vaccine has shown somewhat encouraging results in an advanced clinical efficacy trial. A modified intent-to-treat(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children and is responsible for as many as 199,000 childhood deaths annually worldwide. To support the development of viral therapeutics and vaccines for RSV, a human adult experimental infection model has been established. In this report, we describe the(More)
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for as many as 199000 annual deaths worldwide. Currently, there is no standard treatment for RSV disease and no vaccine. Sendai virus (SeV) is an attractive pediatric vaccine candidate because it elicits robust and long-lasting virus-specific B cell and T cell activities in systemic and mucosal tissues.(More)
The immune system has evolved to use sophisticated mechanisms to recruit lymphocytes to sites of pathogen exposure. Trafficking pathways are precise. For example, lymphocytes that are primed by gut pathogens can, in some cases, be imprinted with CCR9 membrane receptors, which can influence migration to the small intestine. Currently, little is known about T(More)
Morbidity and mortality due to viral infections are major health concerns, particularly when individuals are vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A deficiency significantly impairs mucosal IgA, a first line of defense against virus at its point of entry. Previous reports have suggested that CD11c(Hi) dendritic cells (DCs) of the gastrointestinal tract produce(More)
The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI) through as yet undefined molecular(More)
In modern-day vaccine design, a good pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine is measured by its ability to induce opsonic antibodies. These antibodies label bacteria for phagocytosis by neutrophils and thereby overcome the capsule's barrier function. Doyle and Pirofski have raised a serious challenge to the current paradigm by describing anti-capsular(More)