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Human parainfluenza virus-type I (hPIV-1) infections are a common cause of "group" and hospitalizations among young children. Here we address the possibility of using the xenotropic Sendai virus [a mouse parainfluenza virus (PIV)] as a vaccine for hPIV-1. Sendai virus was administered to six African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) by the intranasal(More)
The fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) was utilized to phenotype lymphocyte compartments in children receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Sixteen patients (eight males and eight females) of diverse ages, risks of relapse, and within weeks 7-53 of maintenance/continuation chemotherapy treatment were arbitrarily(More)
Morbidity and mortality due to viral infections are major health concerns, particularly when individuals are vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A deficiency significantly impairs mucosal IgA, a first line of defense against virus at its point of entry. Previous reports have suggested that CD11c(Hi) dendritic cells (DCs) of the gastrointestinal tract produce(More)
T-cell immunotherapy that takes advantage of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-stimulated immunity has the potential to fill an important niche in targeted therapy for EBV-related cancers. To address questions of long-term efficacy, safety, and practicality, we studied 114 patients who had received infusions of EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) at 3(More)
The immunogenicity of an isolated murine helper T cell determinant was studied. Mice were immunized with a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 111-120 of the influenza PR8 hemagglutinin (HA) heavy chain, a region previously identified as a major target of the helper T cell response to the HA molecule in virus-primed BALB/c mice. Lymph(More)
A significant obstacle to HIV vaccine development lies in the remarkable diversity of envelope proteins, the major targets of neutralizing antibody. That envelope diversity must be targeted is demonstrated by results from nonhuman primate studies in which single-envelope vaccines have protected against homologous, but rarely against heterologous virus(More)
We find that a single respiratory administration of replicationally inactivated influenza A viral particles most often elicits a waning serum antibody response, as the long-sustained bone marrow antiviral plasma cell populations characteristically induced by viral infection are lacking, though antiviral plasma cells at other sites may occasionally persist(More)
DAS181 is a novel drug in development for the treatment of influenza as well as human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Previous studies demonstrated that DAS181 inhibited laboratory strains of hPIV, but no tests were conducted with primary clinical isolates of hPIV. To fill this gap, we studied six primary isolates including hPIV-2 and hPIV-3. First tests(More)
An antigen-stimulated B cell can differentiate to form a clone of cells that secrete antibodies with the IgM, IgG1, and IgA isotypes. We have examined the sequence of isotype expression by proliferating cell lines within a clone by directly staining for immunoglobulin in the cytoplasm of clonal daughter cells. All of the cones selected for analysis(More)
Our previous studies of C57BL/6 mice intranasally infected with influenza virus (A/PR8) revealed a spike of virus-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting antibody-forming cells (AFC) in the mediastinal lymph node (MLN) 7 days post-infection. Here we show that these AFC are directed only against viral glycoprotein, and not nucleocapsid antigens. The early(More)