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Comprehensive expression profiles of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MIRNA genes and mature microRNAs (miRs) are currently not available. We established a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction platform that allows rapid and sensitive quantification of 177 Arabidopsis primary miR transcripts (pri-miRs). The platform was used to detect(More)
Systemic signalling is indispensable for the coordination of diverse physiological processes during development, defence and nutrient allocation. Indirect evidence suggests that plant small RNAs (smRNAs) could be involved in long-distance information transfer via the vasculature of the plant. Analyses of the smRNA complements of vascular exudates from(More)
Many different proteins can be separated from the sap of mature sieve tubes of different plant species. To date, only a limited number of those have been identified and functionally characterised. Due to sieve tubes inability of transcription and translation, the proteins are most probably synthesised in the intimately connected companion cells and(More)
Xylem sap from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. Calabrais), rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Drakkar), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cv. gelber Zentner) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Hoffmanns Giganta) was collected by root pressure exudation from the surface of cut stems of healthy, adult plants. Total protein concentrations were in the range of 100(More)
The soluble proteins in sieve tube exudate from Brassica napus plants were systematically analyzed by 1-DE and high-resolution 2-DE, partial amino acid sequence determination by MS/MS, followed by database searches. 140 proteins could be identified by their high similarity to database sequences (135 from 2-DE, 5 additional from 1-DE). Most analyzed spots(More)
Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC(More)
The presence of microRNA species in plant phloem sap suggests potential signaling roles by long-distance regulation of gene expression. Proof for such a role for a phloem-mobile microRNA is lacking. Here we show that phosphate (Pi) starvation-induced microRNA399 (miR399) is present in the phloem sap of two diverse plant species, rapeseed and pumpkin, and(More)
Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and consumption for metabolism, growth, and defense reactions. Since plants often have to grow in environments with sub-optimal nutrient availability, a fine tuning is vital. To achieve this, information has to flow cell-to-cell and over(More)
The phloem is the major route for the transport of solutes and nutrients from source to sink organs in plants. The functional transport phloem consists of parenchymal tissue, enucleate sieve elements, and the intimately connected companion cells. The general absence of a nucleus and functional ribosomes in sieve tubes poses problems especially for damage(More)
The phloem is a well-known target of sucking and piercing insects that utilize the transported fluid as their major nutrient source. In addition to small molecules like sugars and amino acids, phloem sap of higher land plants contains proteins that can accumulate up to high concentrations. Although the knowledge about the identities of these phloem sap(More)