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BACKGROUND Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and consumption for metabolism, growth, and defense reactions. Since plants often have to grow in environments with sub-optimal nutrient availability, a fine tuning is vital. To achieve this, information has to flow cell-to-cell and(More)
BACKGROUND Substance transport in higher land plants is mediated by vascular bundles, consisting of phloem and xylem strands that interconnect all plant organs. While the phloem mainly allocates photoassimilates, the role of the xylem is the transport of water and inorganic nutrients from roots to all aerial plant parts. Only recently it was noticed that in(More)
The phloem is a well-known target of sucking and piercing insects that utilize the transported fluid as their major nutrient source. In addition to small molecules like sugars and amino acids, phloem sap of higher land plants contains proteins that can accumulate up to high concentrations. Although the knowledge about the identities of these phloem sap(More)
The intricate assembly of photosystem I (PSI), a large multiprotein complex in the thylakoid membrane, depends on auxiliary protein factors. One of the essential assembly factors for PSI is encoded by ycf3 (hypothetical chloroplast reading frame number 3) in the chloroplast genome of algae and higher plants. To identify novel factors involved in PSI(More)
The presence of microRNA species in plant phloem sap suggests potential signaling roles by long-distance regulation of gene expression. Proof for such a role for a phloem-mobile microRNA is lacking. Here we show that phosphate (Pi) starvation-induced microRNA399 (miR399) is present in the phloem sap of two diverse plant species, rapeseed and pumpkin, and(More)
BACKGROUND Laser microdissection is a useful tool for collecting tissue-specific samples or even single cells from animal and plant tissue sections. This technique has been successfully employed to study cell type-specific expression at the RNA, and more recently also at the protein level. However, metabolites were not amenable to analysis after laser(More)
Sieve tubes are transport conduits not only for photoassimilates but also for macromolecules and other compounds that are involved in sieve tube maintenance and systemic signalling. In order to gain sufficient amounts of pure phloem exudates from barley plants for analyses of the protein and mRNA composition, a previously described stylectomy set-up was(More)
Plants frequently have to cope with environments with sub-optimal mineral nutrient availability. Therefore they need to constantly sense changes of ion concentrations in their environment. Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and demand for metabolism, growth, reproduction, and(More)
Long-distance phloem transport of small metabolites has long been the subject of many different studies concentrating on resource allocation and signalling between plant organs. Also, phloem movement of viruses has long been examined as the route for systemic infection of the plant. Only recently, the transport of macromolecules, such as proteins and(More)
Cucurbits developed the unique extrafascicular phloem (EFP) as a defensive structure against herbivorous animals. Mechanical leaf injury was previously shown to induce a systemic wound response in the EFP of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). Here, we demonstrate that the phloem antioxidant system and protein modifications by NO are strongly regulated during this(More)