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Comprehensive expression profiles of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MIRNA genes and mature microRNAs (miRs) are currently not available. We established a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction platform that allows rapid and sensitive quantification of 177 Arabidopsis primary miR transcripts (pri-miRs). The platform was used to detect(More)
The presence of microRNA species in plant phloem sap suggests potential signaling roles by long-distance regulation of gene expression. Proof for such a role for a phloem-mobile microRNA is lacking. Here we show that phosphate (Pi) starvation-induced microRNA399 (miR399) is present in the phloem sap of two diverse plant species, rapeseed and pumpkin, and(More)
Systemic signalling is indispensable for the coordination of diverse physiological processes during development, defence and nutrient allocation. Indirect evidence suggests that plant small RNAs (smRNAs) could be involved in long-distance information transfer via the vasculature of the plant. Analyses of the smRNA complements of vascular exudates from(More)
Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC(More)
Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and consumption for metabolism, growth, and defense reactions. Since plants often have to grow in environments with sub-optimal nutrient availability, a fine tuning is vital. To achieve this, information has to flow cell-to-cell and over(More)
The phloem is the major route for the transport of solutes and nutrients from source to sink organs in plants. The functional transport phloem consists of parenchymal tissue, enucleate sieve elements, and the intimately connected companion cells. The general absence of a nucleus and functional ribosomes in sieve tubes poses problems especially for damage(More)
Substance transport in higher land plants is mediated by vascular bundles, consisting of phloem and xylem strands that interconnect all plant organs. While the phloem mainly allocates photoassimilates, the role of the xylem is the transport of water and inorganic nutrients from roots to all aerial plant parts. Only recently it was noticed that in addition(More)
Many different proteins can be separated from the sap of mature sieve tubes of different plant species. To date, only a limited number of those have been identified and functionally characterised. Due to sieve tubes inability of transcription and translation, the proteins are most probably synthesised in the intimately connected companion cells and(More)
The soluble proteins in sieve tube exudate from Brassica napus plants were systematically analyzed by 1-DE and high-resolution 2-DE, partial amino acid sequence determination by MS/MS, followed by database searches. 140 proteins could be identified by their high similarity to database sequences (135 from 2-DE, 5 additional from 1-DE). Most analyzed spots(More)
Xylem sap from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. Calabrais), rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Drakkar), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cv. gelber Zentner) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Hoffmanns Giganta) was collected by root pressure exudation from the surface of cut stems of healthy, adult plants. Total protein concentrations were in the range of 100(More)