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Models of spoken word recognition vary in the ways in which they capture the relationship between speech input and meaning. Modular accounts prohibit a word's meaning from affecting the computation of its form-based representation, whereas interactive models allow activation at the semantic level to affect phonological processing. We tested these competing(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its G protein-coupled receptors, VPAC(1)R and VPAC(2)R, are prominent in the immune system and regulate many aspects of T cell-dependent immunity. In mouse T cells, VPAC(1)R is expressed constitutively, whereas VPAC(2)R is induced by immune stimuli. VPAC(2)R-null (VPAC(2)R(-/-)) mice on a C57BL/6 background are shown(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its G-protein-coupled receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2 Rs) are prominent in the immune system. In T cells, VPAC1 R is expressed constitutively whereas VPAC2 R is induced only after stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) or exposure to some cytokines. VPAC1 R and VPAC2 R also transduce different effects of VIP on T cells.(More)
Williams syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, has attracted a great deal of debate concerning the purported intactness of language in the face of other serious cognitive deficits. As more in-depth studies of specific aspects of WS language have emerged, the notion of a preserved language module has been seriously challenged. Although WS vocabulary(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its two G protein-coupled receptors, VPAC1 and VPAC2, are quantitatively prominent and functionally critical in the immune system. Transgenic (T) mice constitutively expressing VPAC2 selectively in CD4 T cells, at levels higher than those found after maximal induction in CD4 T cells of wild-type (N) mice, have(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from platelets and mononuclear phagocytes regulates T cell functions through endothelial differentiation gene-encoded G protein-coupled receptors (Edg Rs). Human blood unactivated CD4+ T cells express predominant ly Edg-4 LPA R over marginal levels of Edg-2 LPA R, as assessed by semiquantitative PCR and Western blots. After(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) from platelets and macrophages mediate T cell functions. Endothelial differentiation gene-encoded G protein-coupled receptors (Edg Rs) are specific for S1P (Edg-1, -3, -5, and -8 Rs) and LPA (Edg-2, -4, and -7 Rs). Human T cell tumors express many Edg Rs for both LPA and S1P. In contrast, human(More)
The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its G protein-coupled receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 prominently mediate diverse physiological functions in the neural, endocrine, and immune systems. A deletion variant of mouse VPAC2 has been identified in immune cells that lacks amino acids 367-380 at the carboxyl-terminal end of the seventh transmembrane domain.(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in blood, lymph, and immune tissues stimulates and regulates T cell migration through their S1P(1) (endothelial differentiation gene encoded receptor-1) G protein-coupled receptors. We show now that S1P(1)Rs also mediate suppression of T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Uptake of [(3)H]thymidine by mouse CD4 T cells(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide and its G protein-coupled receptors, VPAC(1) and VPAC(2), regulate critical aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. T cell VPAC(2)Rs mediate changes in cytokine generation, which potently increase the Th2/Th1 ratio and consequently shift the effector responses toward allergy and inflammation. To examine mechanisms of VPAC(2)(More)