Julia K Kowal

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Injectisomes are multi-protein transmembrane machines allowing pathogenic bacteria to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells, a process called type III secretion. Here we present the first three-dimensional structure of Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella flexneri injectisomes in situ and the first structural analysis of the Yersinia(More)
Multiple neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the aggregation of the human α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein. α-Syn possesses high structural plasticity and the capability of interacting with membranes. Both features are not only essential for its physiological function but also play a role in the aggregation process. Recently it has been proposed that α-Syn(More)
The type III secretion system machinery, also known as the injectisome, delivers bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells during infection. The outer membrane YscC secretin is a major part of Yersinia enterocolitica's injectisome and is among the first components to assemble, solely assisted by its pilotin, YscW. We have determined the(More)
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are cholesterol and lipid transport containers. Mature HDL particles destined for the liver develop through the formation of intermediate discoidal HDL particles, which are the primary acceptors for cholesterol. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of reconstituted discoidal HDL (rdHDL) particles, using a(More)
Among the state-of-the-art techniques that provide experimental information at atomic scale for membrane proteins, electron crystallography, atomic force microscopy and solid state NMR make use of two-dimensional crystals. We present a cyclodextrin-driven method for detergent removal implemented in a fully automated robot. The kinetics of the reconstitution(More)
Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels are important for signal transduction and pacemaking in eukaryotes. The molecular determinants of ligand gating in these channels are still unknown, mainly because of a lack of direct structural information. Here we report ligand-induced conformational changes in full-length MloK1, a cyclic nucleotide-modulated(More)
Eukaryotic cyclic nucleotide-modulated (CNM) ion channels perform various physiological roles by opening in response to cyclic nucleotides binding to a specialized cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. Despite progress in structure-function analysis, the conformational rearrangements underlying the gating of these channels are still unknown. Here, we image(More)
The introduction of direct electron detectors (DED) to cryo-electron microscopy has tremendously increased the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and quality of the recorded images. We discuss the optimal use of DEDs for cryo-electron crystallography, introduce a new automatic image processing pipeline, and demonstrate the vast improvement in the resolution(More)
Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels play crucial roles in signal transduction in eukaryotes. The molecular mechanism by which ligand binding leads to channel opening remains poorly understood, due in part to the lack of a robust method for preparing sufficient amounts of purified, stable protein required for structural and biochemical characterization.(More)
Among the thirteen human aquaporins (AQP0-12), the primary structure of AQP8 is unique. By sequence alignment it is evident that mammalian AQP8s form a separate subfamily distinct from the other mammalian aquaporins. The constriction region of the pore determining the solute specificity deviates in AQP8 making it permeable to both ammonia and H(2)O(2) in(More)