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PURPOSE High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) known as ripples (80-250 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz) can be recorded from macroelectrodes inserted in patients with intractable focal epilepsy. They are most likely linked to epileptogenesis and have been found in the seizure onset zone (SOZ) of human ictal and interictal recordings. HFOs occur frequently at(More)
OBJECTIVE High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the intracerebral electroencephalogram (EEG) have been linked to the seizure onset zone (SOZ). We investigated whether HFOs can delineate epileptogenic areas even outside the SOZ by correlating the resection of HFO-generating areas with surgical outcome. METHODS Twenty patients who underwent a surgical(More)
EEG-fMRI is a non-invasive technique that allows the investigation of epileptogenic networks in patients with epilepsy. Lately, BOLD changes occurring before the spike were found in patients with generalized epilepsy. The study of metabolic changes preceding spikes might improve our knowledge of spike generation. We tested this hypothesis in patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE To localize the irritative zone in children by combined spike-related fMRI and EEG multiple source analysis (MSA) in children with benign rolandic epilepsy. METHODS Interictal spikes were averaged and localized using MSA, and source locations were displayed in the anatomical 3D-MRI in 11 patients (5-12 yrs, median 10). Interictal spikes were(More)
Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological diseases. In focal medically refractory epilepsies, successful surgical treatment largely depends on the identification of epileptogenic zone. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) between 80 and 500Hz, which can be recorded with EEG, may be novel markers of the epileptogenic zone. This review discusses the(More)
PURPOSE Simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (EEG-fMRI) recording is a noninvasive tool for investigating epileptogenic networks. Most EEG-fMRI studies in epilepsy have been performed in adults. Childhood epilepsies, however, differ from those in adults due to interactions between epileptogenic and(More)
EEG-fMRI is a non-invasive tool to investigate epileptogenic networks in patients with epilepsy. Different patterns of BOLD responses have been observed in children as compared to adults. A high intra- and intersubject variability of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) to epileptic discharges has been observed in adults. The actual HRF to epileptic(More)
OBJECTIVE High-frequency (HF) changes were analysed in relation to anatomical origin of spikes, shape and occurrence within the seizure onset zone (SOZ). We evaluated whether HF changes are linked to the SOZ, as established for distinct high-frequency oscillations. METHODS SEEG was filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2000 Hz. Spikes were selected by shape(More)
Neuronal number in the mature CNS is determined by the balance of cell proliferation and death. The effects of ethanol on cell proliferation and death were examined in primary cultures of neocortical neurons derived from 16-day-old rat fetuses. The cells were treated with ethanol (0 or 400 mg/dl) and examined for (1) immunohistochemical identity, (2) cell(More)
OBJECTIVE High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be recorded in epileptic patients with clinical intracranial EEG. HFOs have been associated with seizure genesis because they occur in the seizure focus and during seizure onset. HFOs are also found interictally, partly co-occurring with epileptic spikes. We studied how HFOs are influenced by antiepileptic(More)