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In horses, equine influenza virus (EIV) is a leading cause of respiratory disease. Conventional inactivated vaccines induce a short-lived immune response. By comparison, natural infection confers a long-term immunity to re-infection. An aim of new equine influenza vaccines is to more closely mimic natural infection in order to achieve a better quality of(More)
Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horse. Equine influenza vaccines containing inactivated virus were first developed in the 1960s. Despite their intensive use, equine influenza outbreaks still continue to occur and therefore new strategies of vaccination are necessary to improve vaccine efficacy. Numerous methods of(More)
Infection with equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) leads to respiratory disease, abortion, and neurologic disorders in horses. Molecular epidemiology studies have demonstrated that a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an amino acid variation of the EHV-1 DNA polymerase (N752/D752) is significantly associated with the neuropathogenic potential of(More)
Pregnant mares and young foals were vaccinated with Duvaxyn EHV1,4, an inactivated and adjuvanted vaccine containing both the EHV-1 and 4 antigens. SN and CF antibody titres were induced two weeks after first vaccination. Antibody levels were boosted after second vaccination, however they never reached the levels induced after virus challenge. Young foals(More)
Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infects horses, causing acute respiratory disease, neurological signs, and is also a leading cause of abortion. Protection from EHV-1 infection and disease depends on both humoral (virus neutralising antibody) and cellular (mainly cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CTL) immune responses. CTL activity after EHV-1 infection has been(More)
Equine cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) are well characterised but little is known about the cytokine response after infection or vaccination. EHV-1 is common in horses and infects lymphocytes in vivo. This virus was used as a model to measure the synthesis of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) by equine peripheral blood(More)
The large-scale outbreak of disease across Northern Europe caused by a new orthobunyavirus known as Schmallenberg virus has caused considerable disruption to lambing and calving. Although advances in technology and collaboration between veterinary diagnostic and research institutes have enabled rapid identification of the causative agent and the development(More)
Twelve adult ponies and 2 conventional foals were exposed to 10(6.6) TCID50 of Equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), strain Ab4 and samples of respiratory tract tissues were recovered. Infectious virus in tissue homogenates was detected using susceptible cell monolayers and expression of viral antigens was monitored using indirect immunoperoxidase histochemistry of(More)
The First International Workshop on Equine Leucocyte Antigens was organized and convened for the purposes of identifying immunologically relevant cell surface molecules of equine leucocytes and establishing a system of nomenclature for those molecules. Participating members of the workshop represented the majority of laboratories world-wide engaged in the(More)