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The aims of this study were to quantify the effects of factors such as mode of exercise, body composition and training on the relationship between heart rate and physical activity energy expenditure (measured in kJ x min(-1)) and to develop prediction equations for energy expenditure from heart rate. Regularly exercising individuals (n = 115; age 18-45(More)
The aim of this study was to measure the effects of 12 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, RER, RMR, blood lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and appetite in exercising, normal-weight persons. In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, sixty-two non-obese subjects (twenty-five men, thirty-seven women)(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight using the body mass index (BMI), by age and sex, in South Africa in 2000. DESIGN World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Re-analysis of the 1998 South Africa Demographic and Health Survey data provided mean BMI estimates by age and(More)
BACKGROUND Subjects exercising without fluid ingestion in desert heat terminated exercise when the total loss in body weight exceeded 7%. It is not known if athletes competing in cooler conditions with free access to fluid terminate exercise at similar levels of weight loss. OBJECTIVES To determine any associations between percentage weight losses during(More)
Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and(More)
  • L Havemann, S J West, +4 authors E V Lambert
  • 2006
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) followed by 1 day of carbohydrate (CHO) loading on substrate utilization, heart rate variability (HRV), effort perception [rating or perceived exertion (RPE)], muscle recruitment [electromyograph (EMG)], and performance during a 100-km cycling time trial. In this randomized(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to validate questionnaires concerning body image perception, body size dissatisfaction and weight-related beliefs in multi-ethnic South African mothers and their daughters. SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS Girls attending primary school (ages 9-12 years, n = 333) and their mothers (n = 204) were interviewed regarding their demographics and body(More)
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We developed a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement of visceral adipose tissue (DXA-VAT) as a low cost and low radiation alternative to computed tomography (CT). DXA-VAT was compared to VAT assessed using CT by an(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate the pre- and during-race nutritional intake of cyclists competing in a 210-km 1-day ultraendurance cycle race. Forty-five endurance-trained male cyclists participated in this dietary survey and completed a 3-day dietary record. Mean reported carbohydrate (CHO) intake over the 3 days before the race (5.6 +/- 1.7 g/kg)(More)
South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more(More)