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The aim of this study was to measure the effects of 12 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, RER, RMR, blood lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and appetite in exercising, normal-weight persons. In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, sixty-two non-obese subjects (twenty-five men, thirty-seven women)(More)
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We developed a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement of visceral adipose tissue (DXA-VAT) as a low cost and low radiation alternative to computed tomography (CT). DXA-VAT was compared to VAT assessed using CT by an(More)
We examined the time course of metabolic adaptations to 15 days of a high-fat diet (HFD). Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists were assigned randomly to a control (CON) group, who consumed their habitual diet (30% +/- 8% mJ fat), or a HFD group, who consumed a high-fat isocaloric diet (69% +/- 1% mJ fat). At 5-day intervals, the subjects underwent an oral(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate the pre- and during-race nutritional intake of cyclists competing in a 210-km 1-day ultraendurance cycle race. Forty-five endurance-trained male cyclists participated in this dietary survey and completed a 3-day dietary record. Mean reported carbohydrate (CHO) intake over the 3 days before the race (5.6 +/- 1.7 g/kg)(More)
The aims of this study were to quantify the effects of factors such as mode of exercise, body composition and training on the relationship between heart rate and physical activity energy expenditure (measured in kJ x min(-1)) and to develop prediction equations for energy expenditure from heart rate. Regularly exercising individuals (n = 115; age 18-45(More)
The objective of the study was to characterize ethnic differences in lipid levels and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size and subclasses in black and white South African women and to explore the associations with insulin sensitivity (S(I)), body composition, and lifestyle factors. Fasting serum lipids and LDL size and subclasses, body composition(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight using the body mass index (BMI), by age and sex, in South Africa in 2000. DESIGN World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Re-analysis of the 1998 South Africa Demographic and Health Survey data provided mean BMI estimates by age and(More)
South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more(More)
Previous studies have suggested that the two-handled (levered) shovel is advantageous over the conventional spade from a biomechanical point of view. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether less energy was consumed while shovelling a load of sand with this shovel compared to a conventional tool. Accordingly, an experiment was designed in which(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish relationships between body weight changes and serum sodium during and after an Ironman Triathlon, and postrace fluid status and rectal temperature, including the incidence of hyponatremia. DESIGN Descriptive research. SETTING The 2000 South African Ironman Triathlon, in which each athlete swam 3.8 km, cycled 180 km, and ran 42.2(More)