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The aim of this study was to measure the effects of 12 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, RER, RMR, blood lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and appetite in exercising, normal-weight persons. In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, sixty-two non-obese subjects (twenty-five men, thirty-seven women)(More)
The objective of the study was to characterize ethnic differences in lipid levels and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size and subclasses in black and white South African women and to explore the associations with insulin sensitivity (S(I)), body composition, and lifestyle factors. Fasting serum lipids and LDL size and subclasses, body composition(More)
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We developed a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement of visceral adipose tissue (DXA-VAT) as a low cost and low radiation alternative to computed tomography (CT). DXA-VAT was compared to VAT assessed using CT by an(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish relationships between body weight changes and serum sodium during and after an Ironman Triathlon, and postrace fluid status and rectal temperature, including the incidence of hyponatremia. DESIGN Descriptive research. SETTING The 2000 South African Ironman Triathlon, in which each athlete swam 3.8 km, cycled 180 km, and ran 42.2(More)
The aims of this study were to quantify the effects of factors such as mode of exercise, body composition and training on the relationship between heart rate and physical activity energy expenditure (measured in kJ x min(-1)) and to develop prediction equations for energy expenditure from heart rate. Regularly exercising individuals (n = 115; age 18-45(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) followed by 1 day of carbohydrate (CHO) loading on substrate utilization, heart rate variability (HRV), effort perception [rating or perceived exertion (RPE)], muscle recruitment [electromyograph (EMG)], and performance during a 100-km cycling time trial. In this randomized(More)
Carbohydrate ingestion before and during endurance exercise delays the onset of fatigue (reduced power output). Therefore, endurance athletes are recommended to ingest diets high in carbohydrate (70% of total energy) during competition and training. However, increasing the availability of plasma free fatty acids has been shown to slow the rate of muscle and(More)
We examined the time course of metabolic adaptations to 15 days of a high-fat diet (HFD). Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists were assigned randomly to a control (CON) group, who consumed their habitual diet (30% +/- 8% mJ fat), or a HFD group, who consumed a high-fat isocaloric diet (69% +/- 1% mJ fat). At 5-day intervals, the subjects underwent an oral(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate the pre- and during-race nutritional intake of cyclists competing in a 210-km 1-day ultraendurance cycle race. Forty-five endurance-trained male cyclists participated in this dietary survey and completed a 3-day dietary record. Mean reported carbohydrate (CHO) intake over the 3 days before the race (5.6 +/- 1.7 g/kg)(More)
Although waist circumference (WC) is a marker of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), WC cut-points are based on BMI category. We compared WC-BMI and WC-VAT relationships in blacks and whites. Combining data from five studies, BMI and WC were measured in 1,409 premenopausal women (148 white South Africans, 607 African-Americans, 186 black South Africans, 445 West(More)