Julia Fischer

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Several independent, genome-wide association studies have identified a strong correlation between body mass index and polymorphisms in the human FTO gene. Common variants in the first intron define a risk allele predisposing to obesity, with homozygotes for the risk allele weighing approximately 3 kilograms more than homozygotes for the low risk allele.(More)
We present results of a 10-year study of free-ranging gray-footed chacma baboons (Papio ursinus griseipes) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana. The majority of deaths among adult females and juveniles were due to predation, while infants were more likely to die of infanticide. There were strong seasonal effects on birth and mortality, with the majority of(More)
It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic(More)
Autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are heritable conditions characterized by impaired reciprocal social interactions, deficits in language acquisition, and repetitive and restricted behaviors and interests. In addition to more complex genetic susceptibilities, even mutation of a single gene can lead to ASC. Several such monogenic heritable ASC forms are(More)
During speech acquisition, children form quick and rough hypotheses about the meaning of a new word after only a single exposure-a process dubbed "fast mapping." Here we provide evidence that a border collie, Rico, is able to fast map. Rico knew the labels of over 200 different items. He inferred the names of novel items by exclusion learning and correctly(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by variable clinical severity. Core symptoms are qualitatively impaired communication and social behavior, highly restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although recent work on genetic mutations in ASD has shed light on the pathophysiology of the disease,(More)
Adult male baboons (Papio cynocephalus) give loud two-syllable 'wahoo' calls during dawn choruses, interactions between groups, when chasing females, and in aggressive interactions with other males. These 'contest' wahoos are acoustically different from 'alarm' wahoos given to predators. In a study of free-ranging baboons in the Okavango Delta, Botswana,(More)
Transgenic mice have become an important tool to elucidate the genetic foundation of the human language faculty. While learning is an essential prerequisite for the acquisition of human speech, it is still a matter of debate whether auditory learning plays any role in the development of species-specific vocalizations in mice. To study the influence of(More)
Proteinase B, an asparagine-specific endopeptidase, has been purified from germinating vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds. The final preparation consists of two enzymically active proteins with molecular masses of approximately 39 kDa and 37 kDa. Synthetic substrates were used to confirm cleavage specificity of the proteinase B preparation. As expected, the(More)
Families of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases (CPR) were found in Vicia seeds. cDNAs and antibodies were used to follow organ specificity and the developmental course of CPR-specific mRNAs and polypeptides. Four papain-like cysteine proteinases (CPR1, CPR2, proteinase A and CPR4) from vetch seeds (Vicia sativa L.) were analysed. CPR2 and its(More)