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Overall, most spinal drugs in clinical use have been poorly studied for spinal cord and nerve root toxicity. Laboratory studies indicate that all local anesthetics are neurotoxic in high concentrations and that lidocaine and tetracaine have neurotoxic potential in clinically used concentrations. However, spinal anesthesia (including lidocaine and(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) have been reported to occur after 16% to 40% of ambulatory lidocaine spinal anesthetics. Patient discomfort and the possibility of underlying lidocaine neurotoxicity have prompted a search for alternative local anesthetic agents. We compared the incidence of TNS with procaine or lidocaine spinal(More)
UNLABELLED The etiology of transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) after 5% lidocaine spinal anesthesia remains undetermined. Previous case reports have shown that patients acutely experiencing TNS have no abnormalities on neurologic examination or magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of our study was to determine whether volunteers with TNS would exhibit(More)
BACKGROUND Central neuraxial anesthesia has been reported to decrease the dose of both intravenous and inhalational anesthetics needed to reach a defined level of sedation. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is speculated to be decreased afferent stimulation of the reticular activating system. The authors performed a two-part study (nonrandomized pilot(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Wide variability exists in the amount of regional anesthesia practice to which residents are exposed during training. The number of attempts at various blocks before a trainee becomes proficient at performing these regional anesthetic techniques is not known. This study addresses the question: What is the minimum number of blocks a(More)
BACKGROUND Small doses of bupivacaine may be a reasonable choice for spinal anesthesia for patients having ambulatory surgery. However, few dose-response data are available to guide the selection of reasonable doses of bupivacaine for different ambulatory procedures. METHODS Eight volunteers per group were randomized to receive 3.75, 7.5, or 11.25 mg of(More)
Local anaesthetics have been placed in the intrathecal space for approximately 100 years. Currently used intrathecal local anaesthetics appear to be relatively benign on the basis of the low incidence of permanent neurological deficits. In large retrospective surveys of 4000-10 000 patients, the incidence of persistent neurological sequelae after(More)
UNLABELLED We compared general, epidural, and spinal anesthesia for outpatient knee arthroscopy (excluding anterior cruciate ligament repairs). Forty-eight patients (ASA physical status I-III) were randomized to receive either propofol-nitrous oxide general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway with anesthetic depth titrated to a bispectral index level of(More)