Julia D. Lonchar

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The mammalian sperm nucleus is characterized by unique properties that are important for fertilization. Sperm DNA retains only small numbers of histones in distinct positions, and the majority of the genome is protamine associated, which allows for extreme condensation and protection of the genetic material. Furthermore, sperm nuclei display a highly(More)
Sperm chromatin is organized in a protamine-based, highly condensed form, which protects the paternal chromosome complement in transit, facilitates fertilization, and supports correct gene expression in the early embryo. Very few histones remain selectively associated with genes and defined regulatory sequences essential to embryonic development, while most(More)
To achieve the specialized nuclear structure in sperm necessary for fertilization, dramatic chromatin reorganization steps in developing spermatids are required where histones are largely replaced first by transition proteins and then by protamines. This entails the transient formation of DNA strand breaks to allow for, first, DNA relaxation and then(More)
The major function of sperm is the delivery of the paternal genome to the metaphase II oocyte, ensuring transmission of the genetic information to the next generation. For successful fertilization and healthy offspring, sperm DNA must be protected from exogenous insults. This is achieved by packaging the sperm DNA into a condensed protamine-bound form,(More)
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