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The fragile X syndrome, a common cause of inherited mental retardation, is characterized by an unusual mode of inheritance. Phenotypic expression has been linked to abnormal cytosine methylation of a single CpG island, at or very near the fragile site. Probes adjacent to this island detected very localized DNA rearrangements that constituted the fragile X(More)
BACKGROUND The fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by mutations that increase the size of a specific DNA fragment of the X chromosome (in Xq27.3). Affected persons have both a full mutation and abnormal DNA methylation. Persons with a smaller increase in the size of this DNA fragment (a premutation) have(More)
The prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is now routinely performed by using two probes tightly linked to the CF locus (XV2C and KM19). These probes have been shown to exhibit a strong linkage disequilibrium with the CF locus. Our data (103 families) have been pooled with other French data (237 families). They are consistent with the hypothesis of a unique(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder for which the biochemical defect is as yet unknown. Recently, two cloned segments of human X-chromosome DNA have been described which detect structural alterations within or near the genetic locus responsible for the disorder. Both of these cloned segments were described as tightly(More)
Epidemiologic studies, retrospective and prospective, were done on 1500 abortions collected from 1966-1972. No secular or seasonal variations were observed. From the analysis of the relative frequencies of the different types of chromsome anomalies it is estimated that 1 out of every 2 conceptions has a chromosome anomaly. Maternal-age influence was found(More)
The fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited mental retardation, is characterized by unique genetic mechanisms, which include amplification of a CGG repeat and abnormal DNA methylation. We have proposed that 2 main types of mutations exist. Premutations do not cause mental retardation, and are characterized by an elongation of 70 to 500 bp,(More)
Thirty-seven pregnancies at risk for Niemann-Pick type C disease were monitored by study of cultured amniotic fluid cells (8 cases) or chorionic villus cells (29 cases) in 23 couples over the period 1984-91. An early protocol combined determination of sphingomyelinase activity with electron microscopy. The current strategy, based on the demonstration of(More)
Three hundred and twenty-six French families with a cystic fibrosis-affected child who were referred for prenatal diagnosis were analysed by sibship size: 74.2 per cent of the couples had no further pregnancies to term after the affected child, who was deceased in 34.6 per cent of cases. These couples were followed prospectively after prenatal diagnosis and(More)