Julia B. Edwards

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Recent research has updated a 1998 study of the effects of traffic congestion on logistical efficiency in the UK. It has focused on the contribution of congestion to unreliability across nine sectors. The relationship between traffic flow and transit time variability has been modeled using data from the Highways Agency and speed-flow ratios. An analysis of(More)
Introduction There has been phenomenal expansion of online shopping in recent years, with growth rates exceeding 35% year-on-year (IMRG, 2008). Retail sales for this channel now account for £18.5bn in the UK (Mintel, 2008). IMRG (2008) estimates that 820 million parcels were delivered to UK online shoppers in 2008. This delivery experience is critical to(More)
Purpose: Double-deck trailers could be a key contributor towards the UK's commitment to reducing CO2 emissions towards 2020. A double-deck trailer greatly increases carrying capacity with current vehicle size and weight limits. Double-deck trailers are particularly well suited to retail distribution. This paper introduces a model that calculates the(More)
Introduction The last link in the supply chain (from retailer / supplier to consumer), the so called " last mile " , is not only the most visible, but can also be the most energy intensive part of the supply chain. Several authors (Browne et al. 2008; Weber et al. 2008; Jespersen, 2004) note that in the case of conventional shopping, personal shopping trips(More)
Paramedian forehead flaps are sometimes required to resurface large or deep nasal defects. The flap often needs to be thinned to match the contour of the surrounding skin at the recipient site. We describe a technique to thin the distal potion of the paramedian forehead flap using a flexible razor blade, the Dermablade. Once familiar with it, this same(More)
PURPOSE We evaluated the performance of prototype underwear designed to detect urine leakage from continence pads, their acceptability to users, and their effect on health-related quality of life and psychosocial factors. DESIGN Prototype product evaluation. SUBJECTS AND SETTING Participants were 81 women with an average age of 67 years (range, 32-98(More)