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Information concerning the fundamental mechanisms of action of both natural and environmental hormones, combined with information concerning endogenous hormone concentrations, reveals how endocrine-disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity (EEDCs) can be active at concentrations far below those currently being tested in toxicological studies. Using only(More)
BACKGROUND In their safety evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a counterpart in Europe, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), have given special prominence to two industry-funded studies that adhered to standards defined by Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). These same agencies have given much less weight in(More)
Oestrogen is considered to be the 'female' hormone, whereas testosterone is considered the 'male' hormone. However, both hormones are present in both sexes. Thus sexual distinctions are not qualitative differences, but rather result from quantitative divergence in hormone concentrations and differential expressions of steroid hormone receptors. In males,(More)
OBJECTIVE Daily adult human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been estimated at <1 µg/kg, with virtually complete first-pass conjugation in the liver in primates but not in mice. We measured unconjugated and conjugated BPA levels in serum from adult female rhesus monkeys and adult female mice after oral administration of BPA and compared findings in mice(More)
The role of the a form of estrogen receptor (ER alpha) gene expression in the regulation of testosterone-dependent male reproductive behaviors was investigated using ER knockout mice (ERKO), which are specifically deficient in functional ER alpha, but not ER beta, gene expression. Previous studies in gonadally intact ERKO mice revealed that male aggressive(More)
The role of gene expression of the estrogen receptor-alpha form (ER alpha) in the regulation of female reproductive behavior was investigated in estrogen receptor knockout (ERKO) mice, deficient specifically for the ER alpha, but not the ER beta, gene. Estrogen- or estrogen- plus progesterone-treated gonadectomized ERKO mice did not show any lordosis(More)
Deficiency of normal estrogen receptor(ER) gene function led to behavioral change in female mice (ERKO females). Maternal behavior as measured by retrieving of pups was reduced. In some cases, pups were killed by the ERKO females, which was not seen in wild-type animals. Aggression toward other females was increased. Female-typical lordosis behavior was(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer with estrogenic activity that is used in the production of food packaging, dental sealants, polycarbonate plastic, and many other products. The monomer has previously been reported to hydrolyze and leach from these products under high heat and alkaline conditions, and the amount of leaching increases as a function of use. We(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins; public health concerns have been fueled by findings that BPA exposure can reduce sex differences in brain and some behaviors. We asked if a low BPA dose, within the range measured in humans, ingested during pregnancy, would affect social behaviors in prepubertal(More)
There is increasing experimental and epidemiological evidence that fetal programming of genetic systems is a contributing factor in the recent increase in adult obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome. In particular, there is evidence that epigenetic changes associated with the use of manmade chemicals may interact with other factors that(More)