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The aim of this study is to show the relationship between test-retest reproducibility and responsiveness and to introduce the smallest real difference (SRD) approach, using the sickness impact profile (SIP) in chronic stroke patients as an example. Forty chronic stroke patients were interviewed twice by the same examiner, with a 1-week interval. All(More)
3D kinematic measurements in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to assess gait deviations can only be performed in gait laboratories using optoelectronic systems. Alternatively, an inertial and magnetic measurement system (IMMS) can be applied for ambulatory motion-tracking. A protocol named Outwalk has recently been developed to measure the 3D kinematics(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy of tibial nerve blocking by percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation and an ankle-foot orthosis on the walking ability of stroke patients with a spastic equinus or equinovarus foot. DESIGN A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with a 2 x 2 factorial design and with a 3-month follow-up. SETTING(More)
We examined whether deficits in planning and control during a manual collision avoidance task in children with hemiparesis are associated with damage to the left or right hemisphere (LHD and RHD). Children pushed a doll across a scale-size road between two approaching toy cars. Movement onset and velocity served as indicators of planning and control. In(More)
Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury(More)
An interdisciplinary European group of clinical experts in the field of movement disorders and experienced Botulinum toxin users has updated the consensus for the use of Botulinum toxin in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP). A problem-orientated approach was used focussing on both published and practice-based evidence. In part I of the(More)
This study validates two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound measurements of muscle geometry of the human medial gastrocnemius (GM) and investigates effects of probe orientation on errors in these measurements. Ultrasound scans of GM muscle belly were made both on human cadavers (n = 4) and on subjects in vivo (n = 5). For half of the cadavers, ultrasound scans(More)
AIM to identify the use and utility of language comprehension tests for unintelligible or non-speaking children with severe cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD severe CP was defined as severe dysarthria (unintelligible speech) or anarthria (absence of speech) combined with severe limited mobility, corresponding to Gross Motor Function Classification System levels(More)
Among features of motor disorders in children, spasticity is associated with considerable morbidity and problems in care, particularly in severely affected patients. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been increasingly used as a relatively specific treatment modality for spasticity. To date, most of the evidence for its use in paediatric patients has come from(More)
This study reviews the instruments used for the clinical assessment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy, and evaluates their compliance with the concept of spasticity, defined as a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone to passive stretch. Searches were performed in Medline, Embase, and Cinahl, including the keywords 'spasticity', 'child', and(More)