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A method is presented for representing botanical trees, given three-dimensional points and connections. Limbs are modeled as generalized cylinders whose axes are space curves that interpolate the points. A free-form surface connects branching limbs. "Blobby" techniques are used to model the tree trunk as a series of non-circular cross sections. Bark is… (More)

In recent years, numerous techniques have been developed for the polygonization of implicit surfaces. This article reviews the principal algorithms and provides a framework for identifying their conceptual similarities as well as their practical differences. Particular attention is devoted to the much discussed problem of topological ambiguity, with… (More)

Vertex deformation is a popular technique to animate an erstwhile static object. It is difficult, however, to deform those vertices near multiple limbs of the controlling stick-figure skeleton while maintaining a natural-appearing surface.By applying convolution to the medial axis/surface of the object, the weights associated with vertex deformation can be… (More)

Recent research has demonstrated the usefulness of implicit surfaces for modeling geometric objects. The interactive design of such surfaces has not, however, received the same attention as has the design of parametric surfaces. Principally this is due to the difficulty of controlling the shape of implicit surfaces while displaying the changes quickly… (More)

Smoothly blended articulated models are often difficult to construct using current techniques. Our solution in this paper is to extend the surfaces introduced by Blinn [Blinn 1982] by using three-dimensional convolution with skeletons composed of polygons or curves. The resulting convolution surfaces permit fluid topology changes, seamless part joins, and… (More)

A method is presented to broaden implicit surface modeling. The implicit surfaces usually employed in computer graphics are two dimensional manifolds because they are defined by real-valued functions that impose a binary regionalization of space (i.e., an inside and an outside). When tiled, these surfaces yield edges of degree two. The new method allows the… (More)

The geometric skeleton is derived from a static object using an implicit 'directions' method; an IK skeleton is derived from and used to manipulate the geometric skeleton. The model may be reconstructed from the modified skeleton using implicit distance and convolution methods.

An edge, when point-sampled for display by a raster device and not aligned with a display axis, appears as a stair-case.This common aliasing artifact often occurs in computer images generated by two- and three-dimensional algorithms. The precise edge information often is no longer available but, from the set of vertical and horizontal segments which form… (More)