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BACKGROUND Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-A) are present in type 1 diabetes and stiff man syndrome (SMS), and have also been reported in cerebellar ataxia. Epilepsy was present in 4 of 19 patients with SMS and GAD-A, implying that epilepsy sometimes is associated with anti-GAD autoimmunity. METHODS The authors investigated the(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this paper is to present an easy-to-use and reproducible morphometrical method of determining the density of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) per epidermal area with the corresponding reference range of the IENF-counts. METHODS Thirty patients and 22 controls were included in this study. The patients were divided into three(More)
We present a cross-sectional, population-based neuropsychological study of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients identified within Tampere University Hospital district, Finland with 440,000 inhabitants. Patients with definite SLE in the age range of 16-65 years (n = 46) and matched controls (n = 46) underwent neurological examination and comprehensive(More)
Conflicting reports have been published on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in patients with epilepsy. Serum IgA, IgG, and IgM concentrations were determined in a cohort of 958 patients and in a reference population of 581 subjects. Overall, 8.2% of patients with epilepsy and 1.9% of control subjects had low serum IgA concentrations. Low serum IgA(More)
We have previously reported increased concentrations of interleukin (1L)-6 in CSF from patients with tonic-clonic seizures, where increased cytokine production most likely is a consequence of neuronal epileptic activity associated with seizures. The biological effects of IL-6 are mediated by other cytokines, which are studied here in addition to IL-6. The(More)
Experimental animal studies suggest the involvement of cytokines in epilepsy. We measured increased concentrations of interleukin-6 in four out of 15 cerebrospinal fluid samples from unmedicated patients with newly developed tonic-clonic seizures; plasma levels were also increased but to a lesser extent. Although the significance of cytokine production in(More)
PURPOSE Excessive neuronal activity and seizures directly stimulate cytokine expression. In this study we investigated cytokine production in circulating blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in order to assess the cellular origin of these cytokines in patients with therapy resistant epilepsy. METHODS We compared the levels of plasma(More)
OBJECTIVES Experimental studies suggest increased cerebral production of inflammatory cytokines after prolonged seizures. Whether a single non-prolonged seizure in human patients is associated with activation of cytokine network is still unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist(More)
UNLABELLED Experimental and clinical studies have shown that prolonged seizures result in increased cytokine production in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to examine plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) in 20 patients with epilepsy undergoing a(More)