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OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of neuropsychiatric (NP) syndromes in a Finnish population of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to classify them according to the recently developed American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature and case definitions for NPSLE. METHODS Cross-sectional, population-based study covering an area(More)
BACKGROUND Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-A) are present in type 1 diabetes and stiff man syndrome (SMS), and have also been reported in cerebellar ataxia. Epilepsy was present in 4 of 19 patients with SMS and GAD-A, implying that epilepsy sometimes is associated with anti-GAD autoimmunity. METHODS The authors investigated the(More)
PURPOSE Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs) have been detected in patients with epilepsy, but the clinical determinants of epilepsy associated with GADA have not been defined. METHODS We analyzed GADA with a radioimmunoassay in sera of 253 well-characterized patients with epilepsy and 200 control subjects. The positive samples were confirmed by(More)
Free radicals are thought to be involved in the onset of neuronal disturbances such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. It is also assumed that they play a role in cerebral injury caused by ischemia or trauma. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Total (peroxyl) Radical-trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP), and(More)
PURPOSE The increased prevalence of autoantibodies in patients with epilepsy has been traditionally regarded to be a consequence of antiepileptic drugs. The purpose of this study was to measure autoantibodies in well-defined groups of patients with seizures to determine the effects of epilepsy and antiepileptic medications on the presence of autoantibodies.(More)
OBJECTIVES Experimental studies suggest increased cerebral production of inflammatory cytokines after prolonged seizures. Whether a single non-prolonged seizure in human patients is associated with activation of cytokine network is still unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist(More)
Experimental studies suggest that cytokine production may be triggered by seizure activity. Here we determined the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its soluble receptor components (sIL-6R and sGp130) in CSF and serum from control subjects and patients after different types of seizures. IL-6 levels were increased after seizures, whereas sIL-6R levels were(More)
The objectives of the present study was to correlate the segmented magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces (expressing the extent of brain atrophy) and cerebral plaques with the neurological disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Earlier studies have mainly correlated MS plaques and(More)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective and safe treatment in major depressive disorders. However, the possibility that it may induce cognitive adverse effects observed in selected patients has raised a concern that ECT may induce neuronal damage. The biomarkers of brain damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100b protein (S-100b),(More)