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BACKGROUND During the most recent decade many Bayesian statistical models and software for answering questions related to the genetic structure underlying population samples have appeared in the scientific literature. Most of these methods utilize molecular markers for the inferences, while some are also capable of handling DNA sequence data. In a number of(More)
Phylogeographical analyses have become commonplace for a myriad of organisms with the advent of cheap DNA sequencing technologies. Bayesian model-based clustering is a powerful tool for detecting important patterns in such data and can be used to decipher even quite subtle signals of systematic differences in molecular variation. Here, we introduce two(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to quantitate expression of genes possibly contributing to insulin resistance and fat deposition in the human liver. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 24 subjects who had varying amounts of histologically determined fat in the liver ranging from normal (n = 8) to steatosis due to a nonalcoholic fatty liver(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate host cell activation by various microbial components. TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are the receptors that have been associated with virus-induced immune response. We have previously reported that all these TLRs, except TLR9, are expressed at mRNA levels in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we have studied(More)
Epithelial cells of the lung are the primary targets for respiratory viruses. Virus-carried single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 8, whereas dsRNA is bound by TLR3 and a cytoplasmic RNA helicase, retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I). This recognition leads to the activation of host cell cytokine gene expression. Here(More)
IL-27 is a novel member of the IL-12 cytokine family. IL-27 has pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, and it controls the responses of adaptive immunity. It promotes the differentiation of naïve Th cells and suppresses the effector functions of Th17 cells. Biologically active IL-27 is a heterodimer composed of EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and p28 proteins. We(More)
NK cells participate in innate immune responses by secreting gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and by destroying virus-infected cells. Here the interaction between influenza A or Sendai virus-infected macrophages and NK cells has been studied. A rapid, cell-cell contact-dependent production of IFN-gamma from NK cells cultured with virus-infected macrophages was(More)
Population genetics encompasses a strong theoretical and applied research tradition on the multiple demographic processes that shape genetic variation present within a species. When several distinct populations exist in the current generation, it is often natural to consider the pattern of their divergence from a single ancestral population in terms of a(More)
BACKGROUND Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the treatment of choice for elective cholecystectomy, but controversy persists over use of this approach in the treatment of acute cholecystitis. We undertook a randomised comparison of the safety and outcome of LC and open cholecystectomy (OC) in patients with acute cholecystitis. METHODS 63 of 68(More)
Primary aldosteronism consists of a mixture of subgroups. The operative treatment is successful only in cases of aldosterone-producing neoplasia (and in rare cases of primary unilateral hyperplasia); all other cases should be treated medically. The aim of this study was to determine if aldosterone-producing neoplasia had been successfully differentiated(More)