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During the most recent decade many Bayesian statistical models and software for answering questions related to the genetic structure underlying population samples have appeared in the scientific literature. Most of these methods utilize molecular markers for the inferences, while some are also capable of handling DNA sequence data. In a number of earlier(More)
Epithelial cells of the lung are the primary targets for respiratory viruses. Virus-carried single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 8, whereas dsRNA is bound by TLR3 and a cytoplasmic RNA helicase, retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I). This recognition leads to the activation of host cell cytokine gene expression. Here(More)
Phylogeographical analyses have become commonplace for a myriad of organisms with the advent of cheap DNA sequencing technologies. Bayesian model-based clustering is a powerful tool for detecting important patterns in such data and can be used to decipher even quite subtle signals of systematic differences in molecular variation. Here, we introduce two(More)
UNLABELLED Enterococcus faecium has recently emerged as an important multiresistant nosocomial pathogen. Defining population structure in this species is required to provide insight into the existence, distribution, and dynamics of specific multiresistant or pathogenic lineages in particular environments, like the hospital. Here, we probe the population(More)
Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) play essential roles in host defence against microbial infections. In the present study, it is shown that human monocyte-derived macrophages and DCs express both type I and type III interferons (IFNs) [IFN-alpha, IFN-beta and interleukin 28 (IL-28), IL-29, respectively], tumour necrosis factor alpha and the chemokines(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to quantitate expression of genes possibly contributing to insulin resistance and fat deposition in the human liver. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 24 subjects who had varying amounts of histologically determined fat in the liver ranging from normal (n = 8) to steatosis due to a nonalcoholic fatty liver(More)
NK and T cell-derived IFN-gamma is a key cytokine that stimulates innate immune responses and directs adaptive T cell response toward Th1 type. IL-15, IL-18, and IL-21 have significant roles as activators of NK and T cell functions. We have previously shown that IL-15 and IL-21 induce the expression of IFN-gamma, T-bet, IL-12R beta 2, and IL-18R genes both(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) respond to microbial infections by undergoing phenotypic maturation and by producing multiple cytokines. In the present study, we analyzed the ability of influenza A and Sendai viruses to induce DC maturation and activate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta), and IFN-like interleukin-28A/B(More)
Population genetics encompasses a strong theoretical and applied research tradition on the multiple demographic processes that shape genetic variation present within a species. When several distinct populations exist in the current generation, it is often natural to consider the pattern of their divergence from a single ancestral population in terms of a(More)