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Pension prefunding can be used to smoothe contribution rates in economies where ageing will increase pension expenditure. But how extensive should prefunding be, in a defined benefit pension system, when there is considerable uncertainty concerning future mortality, fertility, and migration? We study the prefunding rules in the Finnish earnings-related(More)
The aim of the paper is to describe and introduce smart charging test environment and plug-in hybrid vehicle capable of smart charging and vehicle to grid functionality. Furthermore, the paper aims at demonstrating simple smart charging strategy in operation on smart charging test bed. The demonstration utilizes commercially available components and open(More)
Regulatory bodies in electricity sector are trying to find suitable methods to compensate the effects of cost reductions emerged from regulatory models used to control electricity distribution monopolies. Quality aspects have to be recognised also due to growing interest stemming from the customers. This paper describes the regulatory measures taken by(More)
In this paper, a description of a smart charging interface in an actual smart grid environment is presented. In addition, some results of controlled smart charging events are shown. The smart charging interface in Green Campus Smart Grid allows handling and controlling multiple electric vehicles (EVs) within the campus area based on information from the EVs(More)