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An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was adopted to incubate bio-granules that could simultaneously convert 4.8 kg-Sm(-3) d(-1) of sulfide in 97% efficiency; 2.6 kg-Nm(-3) d(-1) of nitrate in 92% efficiency; and 2.7 kg-Cm(-3) d(-1) acetate in 95% efficiency. Mass balance calculation of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon over the EGSB reactor confirmed(More)
Membrane biofouling by microbial products adversely impacts the feasibility of adopting membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for treating wastewater. The fouling layer structure determines the pressure drop across the fouling layer. Three-dimensional distributions of nucleic acids, proteins, alpha-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE POLYSACCHARIDES, AND B-D-glucopyranose(More)
Nanotextured silicon substrata with parallel ridges separated by grooves with equal width from 90 to 500 nm, were fabricated by electron beam lithography and dry etching techniques. Osteoblast-like cells, MG-63, were cultured on the sterilized nanopatterned substrata for 4 or 24 h, and then imaged by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of substrate(More)
Nitrite accumulates during biological denitrification processes when carbon sources are insufficient. Acetate, methanol, and ethanol were investigated as supplementary carbon sources in the nitrite denitrification process using biogranules. Without supplementary external electron donors (control), the biogranules degraded 200 mg l(-1) nitrite at a rate of(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can provide valuable data for root canal systems of human teeth. This study used CBCT to evaluate the number of roots and canals in mandibular first molars in Taiwanese individuals. METHODS We screened 151 patients (76 male and 75 female) scheduled for CBCT scan prior to implantation, or orthodontic,(More)
Freeze-fixation and freeze-gelation methods are presented in this paper which can be used to prepare highly porous scaffolds without using the time and energy consuming freeze-drying process. The porous structure was generated during the freeze of a polymer solution, following which either the solvent was extracted by a non-solvent or the polymer was gelled(More)
OBJECTIVES As the bond strength of composite resin to Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated dentin has not yet been evaluated, the objectives of this study were to investigate the tensile bond strength and to analyze the resin-dentin interface among bur-cut/acid-etched, Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated/acid-etched and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated human dentin. METHODS Crown(More)
The present investigation examines the way to enhance aerobic granulation by controlling the microbial communities via applying different settling times. Early granulation of aerobic granules is noticeable at a settling time of 5 min. The functional strains are enriched in granules without challenge of non-flocculating strains. Short settling times at(More)
Membrane fouling results in flux decline or transmembrane pressure drop increase during membrane bioreactor (MBR) operation. Physical and chemical cleanings are essential to keep an MBR operating at an appropriate membrane flux. Considerable residual membrane permeability loss that cannot be removed by conventional cleaning requires membrane replacement.(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the tensile bond strength of composite inlays to human dentin with two different cavity preparation tools (bur versus Er, Cr: YSGG laser) and with two different bonding procedures (total-etch: Variolink II versus self-etch: Maxcem). The specimens were divided into four groups: bur-cut/Variolink II,(More)