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An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was adopted to incubate bio-granules that could simultaneously convert 4.8 kg-Sm(-3) d(-1) of sulfide in 97% efficiency; 2.6 kg-Nm(-3) d(-1) of nitrate in 92% efficiency; and 2.7 kg-Cm(-3) d(-1) acetate in 95% efficiency. Mass balance calculation of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon over the EGSB reactor confirmed(More)
Chitosan scaffolds were modified with RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) in the present work via an imide-bond forming reaction between amino groups in chitosan and carboxyl groups in peptides. Successful immobilization was verified with FTIR spectroscopy, and the immobilized amount was determined to be on the order of 10(-12) mol/cm2 through analysis of the(More)
Membrane biofouling by microbial products adversely impacts the feasibility of adopting membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for treating wastewater. The fouling layer structure determines the pressure drop across the fouling layer. Three-dimensional distributions of nucleic acids, proteins, alpha-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE POLYSACCHARIDES, AND B-D-glucopyranose(More)
  • J Y Lai, J C Liu
  • 2004
Co-conditioning and dewatering behaviors of alum sludge and waste activated sludge were investigated. Two different sludges were mixed at various ratios (2:1; 1:1; 1:2; 1:4) for study. Capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) were utilized to assess sludge dewaterability. Relatively speaking, waste activated sludge, though of(More)
Nanotextured silicon substrata with parallel ridges separated by grooves with equal width from 90 to 500 nm, were fabricated by electron beam lithography and dry etching techniques. Osteoblast-like cells, MG-63, were cultured on the sterilized nanopatterned substrata for 4 or 24 h, and then imaged by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of substrate(More)
Nitrite accumulates during biological denitrification processes when carbon sources are insufficient. Acetate, methanol, and ethanol were investigated as supplementary carbon sources in the nitrite denitrification process using biogranules. Without supplementary external electron donors (control), the biogranules degraded 200 mg l(-1) nitrite at a rate of(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can provide valuable data for root canal systems of human teeth. This study used CBCT to evaluate the number of roots and canals in mandibular first molars in Taiwanese individuals. METHODS We screened 151 patients (76 male and 75 female) scheduled for CBCT scan prior to implantation, or orthodontic,(More)
OBJECTIVES As the bond strength of composite resin to Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated dentin has not yet been evaluated, the objectives of this study were to investigate the tensile bond strength and to analyze the resin-dentin interface among bur-cut/acid-etched, Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated/acid-etched and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated human dentin. METHODS Crown(More)
Freeze-fixation and freeze-gelation methods are presented in this paper which can be used to prepare highly porous scaffolds without using the time and energy consuming freeze-drying process. The porous structure was generated during the freeze of a polymer solution, following which either the solvent was extracted by a non-solvent or the polymer was gelled(More)
The present investigation examines the way to enhance aerobic granulation by controlling the microbial communities via applying different settling times. Early granulation of aerobic granules is noticeable at a settling time of 5 min. The functional strains are enriched in granules without challenge of non-flocculating strains. Short settling times at(More)