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Pseudomonas fluorescens is an opportunistic indoor pathogen that can cause severe airway proinflammatory responses. Pulmonary epithelium, like other mucosal epithelial linings of the body, constitutes the first line of defense against airway microbial pathogens. Mucosal epithelial cells can be a sentinel of pathogenic bacteria via stimulation of specific(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a causative factor of inflammatory bowel diseases. ER stress mediators, including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), are elevated in intestinal epithelia from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study arose from the question of how chemical ER stress and CHOP protein were(More)
NF-κB expression and activity are strictly regulated in gut epithelia to prevent overstimulation of pro-inflammatory responses following exposure to commensal bacteria. The effects of epithelial EGR-1 on responses to bacterial NF-κB-activating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in intestinal epithelial cells under ribosomal stress were assessed. This was done to(More)
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) is a crucial stress-responsive factor in various mucosal injuries, including cellular translational stress conditions. In this study, chemical ribosome-inactivating stresses were assessed for their effects on stress-inducible CHOP expression and its association with epithelial inflammatory cytokine(More)
In response to excessive nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (Nod2) stimulation caused by mucosal bacterial components, gut epithelia need to activate regulatory machinery to maintain epithelial homeostasis. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a representative regulator in the negative feedback loop that modulates(More)
Excessive and persistent insults during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress lead to apoptotic cell death that is implicated in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1), a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is diversely linked to the pathogenesis of cancer. To investigate the precise(More)
The widely used food additive carrageenan (CGN) has been shown to induce intestinal inflammation, ulcerative colitis-like symptoms, or neoplasm in the gut epithelia in animal models, which are also clinical features of human inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, the effects of CGN on pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB and early growth(More)
Chronic exposure to gut bacteria and bacterial products including Nod2 ligands triggers homeostatic regulation in response to various mucosal insults. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a negative regulator of proinflammatory cytokines via bacterial pattern recognition. On the assumption that ATF3 can be a critical modulator of epithelial(More)
Type B 8-keto trichothecenes are muco-active mycotoxins that are notable contaminants in cereal-based food stuffs. Epithelial responses are of primary concern during gastrointestinal exposure in human and animal intoxications. Therefore, optimized biomarkers to assess the specific action of trichothecenes on the human epithelial barrier are needed. In the(More)
The gastrointestinal mucosa has a remarkable ability to repair damage with the support of epidermal growth factor (EGF), which stimulates epithelial migration and proliferative reepithelialization. For the treatment of mucosal injuries, it is important to develop efficient methods for the localized delivery of mucoactive biotherapeutics. The basic idea in(More)