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Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution are associated with variations in respiratory lung function. It has been suggested that the effects of particulate matter may be due to particles in the ultrafine (0.01-0.1 microm) size range. Because previous studies on ultrafine particles only used self-monitored peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), we(More)
Airborne particles are associated with adverse health effects and contribute to excess mortality in epidemiological studies. A recent hypothesis proposes that the high numbers of ultrafine (<0.1 microm diameter) particles in ambient air might provoke alveolar inflammation and subsequently cause exacerbations in pre-existing cardiopulmonary diseases. To test(More)
It has been suggested that ultrafine particles in urban air may cause the health effects associated with thoracic particles (PM10). We therefore compared the effects of daily variations in particles of different sizes on peak expiratory flow (PEF) during a 57-day follow-up of 39 asthmatic children aged 7-12 years. The main source of particulate air(More)
Source apportionment of urban fine particle mass (PM(2.5)) was performed from data collected during 1998-1999 in Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Erfurt (Germany) and Helsinki (Finland), using principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression. Six source categories of PM(2.5) were identified in Amsterdam. They were traffic-related particles (30%(More)
OBJECTIVES This study assessed the source contributions to the mass concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) in personal exposures and in residential indoor, residential outdoor, and workplace indoor microenvironments of the nonsmoking adult population unexposed to environmental tobacco smoke in Helsinki, Finland. METHODS The elemental composition of(More)
The filtering facepiece, also referred to as a disposable respirator, is an extensively used type of respirator without an officially accepted fit testing method. This study describes an aerosol generator and a sampling train, which have been developed for investigating the aerosol penetration characteristics through the filter element and the face seal.(More)
Toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons (polychlorinated biphenyls, benzenes and dioxins and furans) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were examined in combustion gas and deposited soot wipe samples from simulated house fires. Concentrations of these substances were high during the fires, the amounts of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in the combustion gas(More)
A biofiltration technique was developed for removing a mixture of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), and dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) from waste gases. Since H2S, especially at high concentrations, disturbs the removal of Me2S, two biotrickling filters with different microbes and operating pH levels were connected in series to create a two-stage(More)
A novel method (in the context of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)) based on the k nearest neighbour (kNN) principle, has recently been introduced for the derivation of predictive structure-activity relationships. Its performance has been tested for estimating the estrogen binding affinity of a diverse set of 142 organic molecules. Highly(More)