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UNLABELLED Low vitamin D level may predict rickets, osteomalacia, or osteoporosis. We examined serum 25(OH)D concentration as a predisposing factor for bone stress fracture in 756 military recruits. The average serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in the group with fracture, suggesting a relationship between vitamin D and fatigue bone stress(More)
The incidence and long-term outcome of undisplaced fatigue fractures of the femoral neck treated conservatively were examined in Finnish military conscripts between 1970 and 1990. From 106 cases identified, 66 patients with 70 fractures were followed for a mean of 18.3 years (11 to 32). The original medical records and radiographs were studied and physical(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of vitamin D in regulating bone mineralization are well documented. The action of vitamin D as a key link between Toll-like receptor activation and antibacterial responses in innate immunity has recently been shown. The data suggest that differences in the ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to(More)
Ilkka Laaksi, Juha-Petri Ruohola, Ville Mattila, Anssi Auvinen, Timo Ylikomi, and Harri Pihlajamäki Department of Cell Biology, Medical School, and Department of Epidemiology, Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, and Department of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, and Finnish Defence Forces and Research Department,(More)
BACKGROUND Stress fractures are a significant problem among athletes and soldiers and may result in devastating complications or even permanent handicap. Genetic factors may increase the risk, but no major susceptibility genes have been identified. The purpose of this study was to search for possible genetic factors predisposing military conscripts to(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D insufficiency is common in northern countries during wintertime. In Finland, after the recommendation by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, vitamin D has been added to liquid milk products and margarines from February 2003. OBJECTIVE We determined the effects of national policy on vitamin D fortification on vitamin D status(More)
BACKGROUND Military service in Finland is compulsory for all male citizens and annually about 80% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. The elevated risk for many chronic diseases and loss of function among those who are inactive and unfit can be often detected already in youth. On the other hand, activity-induced injuries among young are true public(More)
BACKGROUND Displaced fatigue fractures of the femoral neck are uncommon, but they can lead to substantial patient morbidity. This study was performed to examine the incidence, long-term consequences, radiographic findings, risk factors, and complications associated with this fracture. METHODS Between 1975 and 1994, twenty-one military recruits sustained a(More)
BACKGROUND Bone stress injuries are common in athletes and military recruits. Only a minority of bone stress changes are available on plain radiographs. Acute bone stress is often visible on MRI as bone marrow edema, which is also seen in many other disease processes such as malignancies, inflammatory conditions and infections. The purpose of this study was(More)
UNLABELLED Shin splints, or stress-related anterior lower leg pain, seem to arise from numerous causes, including stress fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 154 consecutive military patients who had magnetic resonance imaging during a 5-year period for stress-related anterior lower leg pain. Using magnetic resonance imaging, 143 bone stress injuries were(More)