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The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus macaque. Comparison with the previously sequenced Indian rhesus(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2, SS2) has evolved into a highly infectious entity, which caused the two recent large-scale outbreaks of human SS2 epidemic in China, and is characterized by a toxic shock-like syndrome. However, the molecular pathogenesis of this new emerging pathogen is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 was immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor to evaluate the performance of butyrate production from glucose and xylose. The results showed that the final concentration and yield of butyric acid were 13.70 and 0.46 g(More)
Phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport, is a major sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. Functionally, when phosphorylated at serine(68), PLM(More)
Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play an important role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many diseases. To gain an insight into the MHC background and to facilitate the experimental use of cynomolgus macaques, the second exon of the MhcMafa-DOB, -DPB1, and -DQB1 genes from 143 cynomolgus macaques were characterized by cloning to(More)
Repeated fed-batch fermentation of glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was successfully employed to produce butyric acid at a high final concentration as well as to adapt a butyric-acid-tolerant strain. At the end of the eighth fed-batch fermentation, the butyric acid concentration reached 86.9 ± 2.17 g/L,(More)
Expression and activity of cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) are altered in many disease states. We engineered mice in which the phosphomimetic phospholemman S68E mutant (inhibits NCX1 but not Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) was constitutively overexpressed in a cardiac-specific manner (conS68E). At 4-6 wk, conS68E mice exhibited severe bradycardia, ventricular(More)
The production of recombinant proteins in a large scale is important for protein functional and structural studies, particularly by using Escherichia coli over-expression systems; however, approximate 70% of recombinant proteins are over-expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies. Here we presented an efficient method for generating soluble proteins from(More)
Rapid and precise control of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) activity is essential in the maintenance of beat-to-beat Ca(2+) homeostasis in cardiac myocytes. Here, we show that phospholemman (PLM), a 15-kDa integral sarcolemmal phosphoprotein, is a novel endogenous protein inhibitor of cardiac NCX1. Using a heterologous expression system that is devoid of(More)