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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that, in addition to its essential role in the function of the immune system, is present in the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, pathologically increased CNS IL-6 has been linked to impairments in memory performance. Thus, the aim of our present study was to investigate hippocampus-dependent and -independent(More)
The protease a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaves tumor necrosis factor (TNF), L-selectin, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) ligands from the plasma membrane. ADAM17 is expressed in most tissues and is up-regulated during inflammation and cancer. ADAM17-deficient mice are not viable. Conditional ADAM17 knockout models demonstrated(More)
Cytokine receptors, which exist in membrane-bound and soluble forms, bind their ligands with comparable affinity. Although most soluble receptors are antagonists and compete with their membrane-associated counterparts for the ligands, certain soluble receptors are agonists. In these cases, complexes of ligand and soluble receptor bind on target cells to(More)
IL-6 is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS. IL-6 signals via binding to either the membrane bound IL-6Rα (classic signaling) or soluble (s)IL-6Ra (trans-signaling) that then form a complex with gp130 to activate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. The importance of classic versus(More)
Interleukin 6 (IL6) trans-signaling has emerged as a prominent regulator of immune responses during both innate and acquired immunity. Regulation of IL6 trans-signaling is reliant upon the release of soluble IL6 receptor (sIL6R), which binds IL6 to create an agonistic IL6/sIL6R complex capable of activating cell types that would not normally respond to IL6(More)
The cytokine IL-6 has been considered to exert neuromodulating influences on the brain, with promoting influences on sleep. Sleep enhances the consolidation of memories, and, in particular, late nocturnal sleep also represents a period of enhanced IL-6 signaling, due to a distinctly enhanced availability of soluble IL-6 receptors during this period,(More)
The immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin6 (IL6) acts in a pro- and anti-inflammatory fashion. Synthesized by myeloid cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, IL6 on target cells, binds to the IL6 receptor (IL6R) and signals via complex formation with the ubiquitously expressed gp130 receptor. Paradoxically, most cells that respond to IL6 during(More)
BACKGROUND The adipokine leptin realizes signal transduction via four different membrane-anchored leptin receptor (Ob-R) isoforms in humans. However, the amount of functionally active Ob-R is affected by constitutive shedding of the extracellular domain via a so far unknown mechanism. The product of the cleavage process the so-called soluble leptin receptor(More)
Naturally ligand independent constitutively active gp130 variants were described to be responsible for inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas. Recently, we genetically engineered a ligand-independent constitutively active gp130 variant based on homodimerization of Jun leucine zippers. Because also heterodimeric complexes within the gp130 family may have(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling induces a rapid reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured mouse dendritic cells (DC), leading to enhanced antigen endocytosis and a concomitant loss of filamentous actin-rich podosomes. We show that as podosomes are lost, TLR signaling induces prominent focal contacts and a transient reduction in DC migratory(More)