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CONTEXT The geographical distributions of hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and alpha+-thalassemia (-alpha) strongly suggest balancing selection with malaria. However, whereas several studies indicate that the HbS carrier state protects against all major forms of clinical malaria, malaria protection on clinical grounds has been more difficult to(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young children. Detailed knowledge of spatial variation of malaria epidemiology and associated risk factors is important for planning and evaluating malaria-control measures. METHODS The spatial variation of malaria incidences and socioeconomic factors were(More)
A point mutation in the promoter of the nitric oxide synthase 2 gene (NOS2), termed NOS2(Lambaréné) (NOS2-G954C), protects heterozygous carriers against severe malaria as effectively as the sickle cell trait. In a prospective longitudinal study, 841 individual infections of initially 200 children (151 wild-type vs. 49 NOS2(Lambaréné) carriers) were(More)
BACKGROUND Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a promising strategy for malaria control in infants. We undertook a pooled analysis of the safety and efficacy of IPT in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Africa. METHODS We pooled data from six double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials (undertaken one each in Tanzania,(More)
The rate of malarial parasitemia in children and adults was assessed by microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction in a holoendemic area in Nigeria. A high rate of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (19.6%) was found. Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale infections were common in a rural area (26.1% and 14.8%) but were observed sporadically in(More)
BACKGROUND Intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine reduces falciparum malaria and anemia but has not been evaluated in areas with intense perennial malaria transmission. It is unknown whether an additional treatment in the second year of life prolongs protection. METHODS A randomized, double-blinded,(More)
Climatic factors influence the incidence of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. They modify the abundance of mosquito populations, the length of the extrinsic parasite cycle in the mosquito, the malarial dynamics, and the emergence of epidemics in areas of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal associations between weekly(More)
Human mycobacterial infections are characterized by a spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations. Specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) factors are associated with the subtypes of leprosy that develop and the course of tuberculosis after infection. The identification of protective mycobacterial antigens presented by a broad variety of HLA(More)
The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data.Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted(More)
BACKGROUND About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease(More)