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Necroptosis is a caspase-independent form of regulated cell death executed by the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), RIP3, and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). Recently, necroptosis-based cancer therapy has been proposed to be a novel strategy for antitumor treatment. However, a big controversy exists on whether this type of(More)
We used a series of gene disruptions and gene replacements to mutagenically characterize 30 kilobases of DNA in the erythromycin resistance gene (ermE) region of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea chromosome. Five previously undiscovered loci involved in the biosynthesis of erythromycin were found, eryBI, eryBII, eryCI, eryCII, and eryH; and three known loci,(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a common neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in MS, can activate necroptosis, a necrotic cell death pathway regulated by RIPK1 and RIPK3 under caspase-8-deficient conditions. Here, we(More)
Mutations in the optineurin (OPTN) gene have been implicated in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of this protein in the central nervous system (CNS) and how it may contribute to ALS pathology are unclear. Here, we found that optineurin actively suppressed receptor-interacting kinase 1 (RIPK1)-dependent(More)
A mutant strain derived by chemical mutagenesis of Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly known as Streptomyces erythreus) was isolated that accumulated erythromycin C and, to a lesser extent, its precursor, erythromycin D, with little or no production of erythromycin A or erythromycin B (the 3"-O-methylation products of erythromycin C and D, respectively).(More)
A lethal zygosis-sensitive mutant of Streptomyces erythreus, ER720, was isolated. Pocks were formed when spores of the parental type were plated on a lawn of ER720, suggesting the loss of a transmissible plasmid, SEP1, from this strain. Recombination did not occur between derivatives of ER720 lacking SEP1, but it did occur if SEP1 was transferred to one of(More)
The prognosis of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma remains dismal in spite of the current concomitant chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide. In particular, the resistance to temozolomide appears to be the greatest obstacle to the treatment of glioblastoma. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the antitumor effects of combination therapy(More)
Macrophages are involved in tumor growth and progression. They infiltrate into tumors and cause inflammation, which creates a microenvironment favoring tumor growth and metastasis. However, certain stimuli may induce macrophages to act as tumor terminators. Here we report that the calcineurin B subunit (CnB) synergizes with IFN-γ to make macrophages highly(More)
Bone is one of the most preferred sites of metastasis in lung cancer. Currently, bisphosphonates and denosumab are major agents for controlling tumor-associated skeletal-related events (SREs). However, both bisphosphonates and denosumab significantly increase the risk for jaw osteonecrosis. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase(More)
Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) are highly tolerant of environmental hypoxia, and with appropriate acclimation may survive and remain active for several days in the complete absence of oxygen. Previous work suggests that the hypoxia-induced activation of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels serves to increase tolerance of low oxygen in many(More)