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In the vertebrate eye, the photoreceptor outer segments and the apical membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are separated by a small extracellular (subretinal) space whose volume and chemical composition varies in the light and dark. Light onset triggers relatively fast (ms) retinal responses and much slower voltage and resistance changes (s to(More)
It is becoming increasingly apparent that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in human breast cancer onset and progression. Therefore, we isolated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from human breast cancer lesions and studied their properties, as compared with normal mammary fibroblasts (NFs) isolated from the same patient. Here, we(More)
Cyclin D1 belongs to a family of proteins that regulate progression through the G1-S phase of the cell cycle by binding to cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-4 to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein and release E2F transcription factors for progression through cell cycle. Several cancers, including breast, colon, and prostate, overexpress the cyclin D1(More)
Breast cancer incidence increases with age but this relationship has not been fully explored with regard to expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and ER-inducible genes (PR, pS2, Bcl2, cathepsin D), or the age-dependence of oxidant stress markers that also affect ER-inducible gene expression. In this three-part study, we first correlated age at diagnosis(More)
Recent technological advances in high-throughput data collection allow for experimental study of increasingly complex systems on the scale of the whole cellular genome and proteome. Gene network models are needed to interpret the resulting large and complex data sets. Rationally designed perturbations (e.g., gene knock-outs) can be used to iteratively(More)
The Dachshund (dac) gene, initially cloned as a dominant inhibitor of the Drosophila hyperactive EGFR mutant ellipse, encodes a key component of the cell fate determination pathway involved in Drosophila eye development. Analysis of more than 2,200 breast cancer samples showed improved survival by some 40 months in patients whose tumors expressed DACH1.(More)
The utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analytical detection and quantification of phosphoinositides and other lipids in lipid extracts from biological samples was explored. Since phosphatidylcholine species in crude extracts have been shown to cause ion suppression of the MS signals for other(More)
Identification of regulatory molecules in signaling pathways is critical for understanding cellular behavior. Given the complexity of the transcriptional gene network, the relationship between molecular expression and phenotype is difficult to determine using reductionist experimental methods. Computational models provide the means to characterize(More)
Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to determine elemental and biomolecular ions from isolated protein samples. We identified a set of 23 mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) peaks that represent signatures for distinguishing biological samples. The 23 peaks were identified by Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Canonical Analysis (CA) to find the(More)
We have developed a fully three-dimensional (3D) model of calcium signaling in epithelial cells based on a set of reaction diffusion equations that are solved on a large-scale finite-element code in three dimensions. We have explicitly included the cellular compartments including the cell nucleus, cytoplasm, and gap junctions. The model allows for buffering(More)
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