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Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral. It is present in virtually all diets at low concentrations. The principal route of intake for Mn is via food consumption, but in occupational cohorts, inhalation exposure may also occur (this subject will not be dealt with in this review). Humans maintain stable tissue levels of Mn. This is achieved via tight(More)
Manganese (Mn), an element found in many foods, is an important and essential nutrient for proper health and maintenance. It is toxic in high doses, however, and exposure to excessive levels can result in the onset of a neurological disorder similar to, but distinct from, Parkinson's disease. Historically, Mn neurotoxicity was most commonly associated with(More)
The observations by Couper in 1837 are acknowledged as the earliest description of the toxic syndrome associated with chronic manganese (Mn) exposure. Since that time, many of the neurotoxic aspects of manganism have been described, yet, the primary basis for its neurotoxicity remains unknown. Recent evidence corroborates the original hypothesis by Maynard(More)
Mercury exists in a wide variety of physical and chemical states, each of which has unique characteristics of target organ toxicity. The classic symptoms associated with exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) and methylmercury (CH3Hg+; MeHg) involve the central nervous system (CNS), while the kidney is the target organ for the mono- and divalent salts of(More)
The neurotoxicity of high levels of methylmercury (MeHg) is well established both in humans and experimental animals. Astrocytes accumulate MeHg and play a prominent role in mediating MeHg toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). Although the precise mechanisms of MeHg neurotoxicity are ill-defined, oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial and cell(More)
Excessive free radical formation has been implicated as one of the causative factors in neurotoxic damage associated with variety of metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-dependent neurotoxicity remains far from clear, overwhelming data give credence to a mediatory role for astrocytes, a major cell type that(More)
Oxidative stress has been implicated in neurotoxic damage associated with various metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear, evidence supports a mediatory role for astrocytes, a cell type that preferentially accumulates MeHg. Using scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), the present study(More)
Excessive free radical formation has been implicated as a causative factor in neurotoxic damage associated with exposures to a variety of metals, including manganese (Mn). It is well established that Mn accumulates in astrocytes, affecting their ability to indirectly induce and/or exacerbate neuronal dysfunction. The present study examined the effects of Mn(More)
Previous studies have shown that iron deficiency (ID) increases brain manganese (Mn), but specific regional changes have not been addressed. Weanling rats were fed one of three semipurified diets: control (CN), iron deficient (ID), or iron deficient/manganese fortified (IDMn+). Seven brain regions were analyzed for Mn concentration and amino acid(More)
The binding characteristics of manganese (Mn) to transferrin (Tf) were examined on G-75 Sephadex gel columns. When 54MnCl2 was combined with Tf and immediately fractionated on the Sephadex column, 49% of 54Mn was found to Tf. The fraction of 54Mn which was Tf-bound was dependent upon the incubation period, and increased in a time-dependent fashion. In vivo,(More)