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Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral. It is present in virtually all diets at low concentrations. The principal route of intake for Mn is via food consumption, but in occupational cohorts, inhalation exposure may also occur (this subject will not be dealt with in this review). Humans maintain stable tissue levels of Mn. This is achieved via tight(More)
The observations by Couper in 1837 are acknowledged as the earliest description of the toxic syndrome associated with chronic manganese (Mn) exposure. Since that time, many of the neurotoxic aspects of manganism have been described, yet, the primary basis for its neurotoxicity remains unknown. Recent evidence corroborates the original hypothesis by Maynard(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal found in all tissues, and it is required for normal amino acid, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. While Mn deficiency is extremely rare in humans, toxicity due to overexposure of Mn is more prevalent. The brain appears to be especially vulnerable. Mn neurotoxicity is most commonly associated with(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that heart rate characteristics (HRC) monitoring improves neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a two-group, parallel, individually randomized controlled clinical trial of 3003 very low birth weight infants in 9 neonatal intensive care units. In one group, HRC monitoring was displayed; in the other, it was masked.(More)
Manganese (Mn), an element found in many foods, is an important and essential nutrient for proper health and maintenance. It is toxic in high doses, however, and exposure to excessive levels can result in the onset of a neurological disorder similar to, but distinct from, Parkinson's disease. Historically, Mn neurotoxicity was most commonly associated with(More)
Mercury exists in a wide variety of physical and chemical states, each of which has unique characteristics of target organ toxicity. The classic symptoms associated with exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) and methylmercury (CH3Hg+; MeHg) involve the central nervous system (CNS), while the kidney is the target organ for the mono- and divalent salts of(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy and safety of early high-frequency oscillatory ventilation as compared with conventional synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation for the treatment of infants with very low birth weight have not been established. METHODS We conducted a randomized, multicenter clinical trial to determine whether infants treated with early(More)
Excessive free radical formation has been implicated as one of the causative factors in neurotoxic damage associated with variety of metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-dependent neurotoxicity remains far from clear, overwhelming data give credence to a mediatory role for astrocytes, a major cell type that(More)
The neurotoxicity of high levels of methylmercury (MeHg) is well established both in humans and experimental animals. Astrocytes accumulate MeHg and play a prominent role in mediating MeHg toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). Although the precise mechanisms of MeHg neurotoxicity are ill-defined, oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial and cell(More)
BACKGROUND Inhaled nitric oxide is a controversial treatment for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, blinded, controlled trial to determine whether inhaled nitric oxide reduced the rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia in such infants. METHODS We randomly assigned 420 neonates, born at less than(More)