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UNLABELLED Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the innate immune response. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The TLR2 and TLR4 expression on hepatocytes and Kupffer cells from fresh liver biopsies was measured from 21 patients with untreated hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and(More)
Increased IFN-α production contributes to the pathogenesis of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from females produce more IFN-α upon TLR7 stimulation than pDCs from males, yet the mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. In this article, we show that basal levels of IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 5 in pDCs(More)
Manifestations of viral infections can differ between women and men, and marked sex differences have been described in the course of HIV-1 disease. HIV-1-infected women tend to have lower viral loads early in HIV-1 infection but progress faster to AIDS for a given viral load than men. Here we show substantial sex differences in the response of plasmacytoid(More)
There is growing evidence that highlights the role of the immune response during acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the control or development of disease. The adaptive immune responses do not appear until after HIV-1 infection is already well established, so the role of earlier and faster-responding innate immunity needs to be(More)
Functional hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells are significantly diminished in individuals chronically infected with HBV compared to individuals with self-limiting HBV infection or those on anti-HBV therapy. In individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), coinfection with HBV is associated with an increased risk of worsening(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical studies have shown faster disease progression and stronger immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected females when compared with males for the same level of HIV-1 replication. Here we determine whether the elevated levels of HIV-1-induced interferon-alpha (IFN-α) production observed in females are associated with(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells play a key role both in the control of HBV replication and in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coinfection and the presence or absence of HBV e (precore) antigen (HBeAg) significantly alter the natural history of chronic HBV infection. We examined the HBV-specific T-cell(More)
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN The objective of this study was to determine changes in toll-like receptor (TLR) responses of monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection. TLRs serve as important innate receptors to sense pathogens, and have been implicated in mediating immune activation in HIV-1(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells play a key role in clearance of the virus and in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Peripheral blood (n = 25) and liver biopsies (n = 19) were collected from individuals with chronic untreated HBV infection. Whole blood, cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and cultured liver-infiltrating(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of and risk factors for hepatic flare (HF) after the initiation of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals is not well understood. METHODS We studied HF in ART-naive HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals in Thailand (n = 36) who were beginning HBV-active ART as part of a(More)