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NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from bovine heart mitochondria is a complicated, multi-subunit, membrane-bound assembly. Recently, the subunit compositions of complex I and three of its subcomplexes have been reevaluated comprehensively. The subunits were fractionated by three independent methods, each based on a different property of the(More)
MitoQ(10) is a ubiquinone that accumulates within mitochondria driven by a conjugated lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP(+)). Once there, MitoQ(10) is reduced to its active ubiquinol form, which has been used to prevent mitochondrial oxidative damage and to infer the involvement of reactive oxygen species in signaling pathways. Here we show(More)
Mammalian mitochondrial complex I is a multisubunit membrane-bound assembly with a molecular mass approaching 1 MDa. By comprehensive analyses of the bovine complex and its constituent subcomplexes, 45 different subunits have been characterized previously. The presence of a 46th subunit was suspected from the consistent detection of a molecular mass of(More)
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from bovine heart mitochondria is a highly complicated, energy transducing, membrane-bound enzyme. It contains 46 different subunits and nine redox cofactors: a noncovalently bound flavin mononucleotide and eight iron-sulfur clusters. The mechanism of complex I is not known. Mechanistic studies using the bovine(More)
Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is essential for oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian mitochondria. It couples electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with proton translocation across the energy-transducing inner membrane, providing electrons for respiration and driving ATP synthesis. Mammalian complex I contains 44 different nuclear- and(More)
Cytochrome c6A is a unique dithio-cytochrome of green algae and plants. It has a very similar core structure to that of bacterial and algal cytochromes c6 but is unable to fulfill the same function of transferring electrons from cytochrome f to photosystem I. A key feature is that its heme midpoint potential is more than 200 mV below that of cytochrome c6(More)
Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria is involved in oxidative damage to the organelle and in committing cells to apoptosis or senescence, but the mechanisms of this increase are unknown. Here we show that ROS production by mitochondrial complex I increases in response to oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool. This(More)
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a major source of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and a significant contributor to cellular oxidative stress. Here, we describe the kinetic and molecular mechanism of superoxide production by complex I isolated from bovine heart mitochondria and confirm that it produces predominantly superoxide, not(More)
Mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from bovine heart is a complicated multisubunit, membrane-bound assembly. Seven subunits are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, and the sequences of 36 nuclear encoded subunits have been described. The subunits of complex I and two subcomplexes (Ialpha and Ibeta) were resolved on one- and two-dimensional(More)
Primases synthesize the RNA primers that are necessary for replication of the parental DNA strands. Here we report that the heterodimeric archaeal/eukaryotic primase is an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) protein. Binding of the Fe-S cluster is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved domain at the C terminus of the large subunit. We further show that the Fe-S domain is(More)