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Tetanus toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic nerve endings. The mature toxin is composed of a heavy and a light chain that are linked via a disulfide bridge. After entry of tetanus toxin into the cytoplasm, the released light chain causes block of neurotransmitter release. Recent evidence suggests that(More)
Caenorhabditis elegans odr-2 mutants are defective in the ability to chemotax to odorants that are recognized by the two AWC olfactory neurons. Like many other olfactory mutants, they retain responses to high concentrations of AWC-sensed odors; we show here that these residual responses are caused by the ability of other olfactory neurons (the AWA neurons)(More)
GTP activates the interaction between the synaptic vesicle proteins rabphilin and rab3. This raises the question of whether rabphilin is a resident vesicle protein that recruits rab3 in a stage-dependent fashion, or if it is instead an effector protein recruited by rab3. We now show that rabphilin, like rab3, dissociates from synaptic vesicles after(More)
Prenylated Rab GTPases cycle between membrane-bound and soluble forms. Membrane-bound GDP-Rabs interact with GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), resulting in the dissociation of a Rab.GDI complex, which in turn serves as a precursor for the membrane re-association of Rabs. We have now characterized the binding of Rab3A to synaptic vesicles in vitro using(More)
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits behavioral responses to many volatile odorants. Chemotaxis toward one such odorant, diacetyl (butanedione), requires the function of a seven-transmembrane receptor protein encoded by the odr-10 gene. To determine directly whether ODR-10 protein is an odorant receptor, it is necessary to express the protein in a(More)
We have developed a new high throughput method for the purification of monoclonal antibodies from harvested cell culture fluid for analytical characterization. This method uses Protein A resin in a 96 well-plate format with protein loading sufficient to perform multiple analyses per well. Resin and buffer conditions were optimized to obtain aggregate and(More)
Polyamine precipitation conditions for removing host cell protein impurities from the cell culture fluid containing monoclonal antibody were studied. We examined the impact of polyamine concentration, size, structure, cell culture fluid pH and ionic strength. A 96-well microtiter plate based high throughput screening method was developed and used for(More)
The detection of low level of protein A leached from monoclonal antibody downstream purification process is often interfered by the presence of excess amount of product antibody. In order to prevent this interference, we developed a new multi-product leached protein A assay that used acidification to completely dissociate the IgG-ProteinA complex, followed(More)
T he paper by Keller and Vosshall on page 337 of this issue is unusual; it describes a refutation of a theory that, while provocative, has almost no credence in scientific circles. The only reason for the authors to do the study, or for Nature Neuroscience to publish it, is the extraordinary—and inappropriate—degree of publicity that the theory has received(More)