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Patterns of cortical functional connectivity in normal infants were examined during natural sleep by observing the time course of very low frequency oscillations. Such oscillations represent fluctuations in blood oxygenation level and cortical blood flow thus allowing computation of neurophysiologic connectivity. Structural and resting-state information(More)
Children who fail to develop language normally-in the absence of explanatory factors such as neurological disorders, hearing impairment, or lack of adequate opportunity-are clinically described as having specific language impairment (SLI). SLI has a prevalence of approximately 7% in children entering school and is associated with later difficulties in(More)
Specific language impairment is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments essentially restricted to the domain of language and language learning skills. This contrasts with autism, which is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by multiple impairments in language, social reciprocity, narrow interests and/or repetitive behaviors.(More)
Language impairments have been hypothesized to have a genetic component. Previous studies of the familial aggregation of language impairments have relied on a retrospective approach based on parental/self-reported history of language development. This study examined familial aggregation prospectively, by investigating language acquisition and cognitive(More)
While advances in network and pathway analysis have flourished in the era of genome-wide association analysis, understanding the genetic mechanism of individual loci on phenotypes is still readily accomplished using genetic modeling approaches. Here, we demonstrate two novel genotype-phenotype models implemented in a flexible genetic modeling platform. The(More)
Recently, structural MRI studies in children have been used to examine relations between brain volume and behavioral measures. However, most of these studies have been done in children older than 2 years of age. Obtaining volumetric measures in infants is considerably more difficult, as structures are less well defined and largely unmyelinated, making(More)
Three children were observed interacting with their mothers at three different times: before the onset of single words, when vocabulary consisted of 10 words, and when vocabulary consisted of 50 words. Relations between communicative functions and acoustic analyses of prosodic variables (i.e. rise vs. nonrise of terminal contours) were studied. Considerable(More)
Arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI provides a noninvasive approach for longitudinal imaging of regional brain function in infants. In the present study, continuous ASL (CASL) perfusion MRI was carried out in normally developing 7- and 13-month-old infants while asleep without sedation. The 13-month infant group showed an increase (P<0.05) of relative(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors conducted a genetic linkage study of families that have both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and language-impaired probands to find common communication impairment loci. The hypothesis was that these families have a high genetic loading for impairments in language ability, thus influencing the language and communication deficits of the(More)
The aim of the study was to examine the profiles of children with a family history (FH+) of language-learning impairments (LLI) and a control group of children with no reported family history of LLI (FH-) and identify which language constructs (receptive or expressive) and which ages (2 or 3 years) are related to expressive and receptive language abilities,(More)