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Behavioral studies have shown that nicotine enhances performance in sustained attention tasks, but they have not shown convincing support for the effects of nicotine on tasks requiring selective attention or attentional control under conditions of distraction. We investigated distractibility in 14 smokers (7 females) with event-related brain potentials(More)
BACKGROUND The procognitive actions of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine are believed, in part, to motivate the excessive cigarette smoking in schizophrenia, a disorder associated with deficits in multiple cognitive domains, including low-level auditory sensory processes and higher-order attention-dependent operations. (More)
Acute nicotine has been found to improve task performance in smokers after smoking abstinence, but the attentional processes mediating these improvements are unclear. Since scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) have been shown to be sensitive indicators of selective attention, the effects of acutely administered nicotine were examined on ERPs and(More)
Given the arousal eliciting actions of smoking and nicotine, and the contributing role of noradrenaline in brain arousal systems, this study examined the neuroelectric and affective correlates of cigarette smoking following acute pre-treatment with the alpha 2-noradrenergic auto-receptor agonist, clonidine. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover(More)
Functional neuroimaging studies of cue-elicited craving in smokers have identified a distributed system of brain activation which includes the frontal cortex. As electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded from frontal brain regions indexes emotive functions, which are believed to play a key role in craving processes, this study examined frontal EEG in(More)
Given the cognitive-promoting properties of the nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptor (nAChR) agonist, nicotine, the increased prevalence of smoke-inhaled nicotine in schizophrenia has been interpreted as an attempt to self-correct cognitive deficits, which have been particularly pronounced in the attentional domain. As glutamatergic abnormalities have been(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Cigarette craving is a core symptom of smoking withdrawal, which is more intense and more frequently observed in smokers with depressed mood. Using self-reports and electroencephalographic (EEG) indices of frontal hemispheric asymmetry, which has been shown to be sensitive to mood states, the purpose of this study was to investigate the(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists administered to healthy humans results in schizophrenia-like symptoms, which preclinical research suggests are due to glutamatergically altered brain oscillations. Here, we examined resting-state electroencephalographic activity in 21 healthy volunteers assessed in a placebo-controlled, double-blind,(More)
BACKGROUND Given that smoking is typically initiated during adolescence, and that this period in brain development seems to be uniquely sensitive to nicotine, depressed youth may be most susceptible to the neuromodulatory and mood-altering effects of nicotine. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies suggest that individuals with major depressive disorder(More)