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The incidence of childhood autism and other autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) in preschool children was determined for two areas of the West Midlands between 1991 and 1996. Children diagnosed before the age of 5 years and residing within the study areas at diagnosis were detected from the records of four child development centres. The incidence rate per(More)
A birth control vaccine incorporating a synthetic peptide antigen representing the aminoacid sequence 109-145 of the C-terminal region of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-beta) was submitted to a phase 1 clinical trial. Thirty surgically sterilised female volunteers, divided into five equal groups for different vaccine doses, received(More)
Recent studies have suggested that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a role in the aetiology of Hodgkin's disease. To determine the role of EBV in childhood Hodgkin's disease in different geographical areas, immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridisation were used to analyse latent membrane protein 1 (LMP 1) and small nuclear non-transcribed RNAs(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroblastoma is a major contributor to childhood cancer mortality, but its prognosis varies with age and stage of disease, and some tumours regress spontaneously. Urinary screening programmes or clinical examination may detect the disease before symptoms appear, but the benefit of early diagnosis is uncertain. We examined the incidence, pattern,(More)
James' adaptation of the Glasgow coma scale (JGCS) was designed for young children. Intubated patients are not allocated a verbal score, however, so important changes in a patient's conscious level may be missed. A grimace score was therefore developed and assessed for use in intubated children. Two observers made a JGCS observation within 15 minutes of(More)
The Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) gene is frequently inactivated in lymphoid malignancies such as chronic lympho-cytic leukemia (CLL), T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), and mantle cell lym-phoma (MCL) and is associated with defective apoptosis in response to alkylat-ing agents and purine analogues. ATM mutant cells exhibit impaired DNA double strand(More)
We review our experience of meningeal tumours in patients under 16 years who were treated between 1957 and 1993. These were 16 with meningiomas (median age 12 years) and 5 with poorly differentiated malignant meningeal tumours (median age 3 years). The incidence of meningeal tumours in this period was 1.62% of all CNS tumours. There were 19 supratentorial(More)
BACKGROUND Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. METHODS Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised(More)
Neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous tumour and its effective clinical management is dependent on accurate prognostic evaluation. In approximately 25% of patients amplification of the MYCN oncogene is known to be associated with a poor outcome. In order to identify additional molecular markers with prognostic potential in non-MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas, we(More)
In order to further define the factors associated with the observed variations in the Epstein-Barr virus-positive rate in childhood Hodgkin's disease, we have studied the effect of material deprivation (measured by the Townsend score) and ethnic origin on the frequency of Epstein-Barr virus-positivity in 55 cases of childhood Hodgkin's disease, diagnosed(More)