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Before we build any piece of software we would, surely, need to be certain that what we intend to build is what is required by the users of that software. In addition, we would want to be sure that the proposed software will behave as expected, do the right thing under all circumstances and also be usable. These functional and usability requirements are(More)
Formal approaches to software development require that we correctly describe (or specify) systems in order to prove properties about our proposed solution prior to building it. We must then follow a rigorous process to transform our specification into an implementation to ensure that the properties we have proved are retained. Different transformation, or(More)
Testing interactive systems is a notoriously difficult task. Not only do we need to ensure that the functionality of the developed system is correct with respect to the requirements and specifications, but also we need to ensure that the user interface (UI) to the system is correct (enables a user to access the functionality correctly) and is usable. These(More)
A multilayered biosensor was constructed and found to detect trinitrotoluene (TNT) in ppb concentrations in air both prior to and after detonation of TNT without use of a liquid phosphate buffered saline (PBS) superstrate. The biosensor surface was fabricated from a monoclonal antibody for TNT covalently bound to an(More)
Formally modelling interactive software systems and devices allows us to prove properties of correctness about such devices, and thus ensure effectiveness of their use. It also enables us to consider interaction properties such as usability and consistency between the interface and system functionality. Interactive modal devices, that have a fixed interface(More)