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Before we build any piece of software we would, surely, need to be certain that what we intend to build is what is required by the users of that software. In addition, we would want to be sure that the proposed software will behave as expected, do the right thing under all circumstances and also be usable. These functional and usability requirements are(More)
Vaccines which successfully protect against virus infections usually need to induce a broadly reactive immune response which includes the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In this study, we have used a convenient in vitro approach to investigate if plasmid DNAs encoding proteins of herpes simplex virus (HSV) are capable of inducing primary CD8+(More)
The infectivity, dissemination, and transmissibility of wild-type Sindbis (SIN) virus were studied in Aedes aegypti (L). There was an initial decline in the viral titer of whole mosquitoes for 3 d after ingestion of virus, followed by a gradual increase to a maximal level by day 6. Immunoperoxidase staining of Ae. aegypti for viral antigen showed infection(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) is a strong systemic and mucosal adjuvant that greatly enhances IgG and IgA immune responses, but its adjuvant effects for cellular immunity, particularly class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, are less well understood. In the present report, CT and the purified non-toxic B component (CTB) were assessed for their(More)
There are many different ways of building software applications and of tackling the problems of understanding the system to be built, designing that system and finally implementing the design. One approach is to use formal methods, which we can generalise as meaning we follow a process which uses some formal language to specify the behaviour of the intended(More)
Formal approaches to software development require that we correctly describe (or specify) systems in order to prove properties about our proposed solution prior to building it. We must then follow a rigorous process to transform our specification into an implementation to ensure that the properties we have proved are retained. Different transformation, or(More)
As computers and software applications become ubiquitous the systems we build are increasingly required to run on not just a single piece of hardware, but rather be available for different platforms, different types of hardware and offer different modes of interaction depending on the context of use. Within a formal development process when we consider(More)
Testing interactive systems is a notoriously difficult task. Not only do we need to ensure that the functionality of the developed system is correct with respect to the requirements and specifications, but also we need to ensure that the user interface (UI) to the system is correct (enables a user to access the functionality correctly) and is usable. These(More)