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Vaccines which successfully protect against virus infections usually need to induce a broadly reactive immune response which includes the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In this study, we have used a convenient in vitro approach to investigate if plasmid DNAs encoding proteins of herpes simplex virus (HSV) are capable of inducing primary CD8+(More)
Formal approaches to software development require that we correctly describe (or specify) systems in order to prove properties about our proposed solution prior to building it. We must then follow a rigorous process to transform our specification into an implementation to ensure that the properties we have proved are retained. Different transformation, or(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) is a strong systemic and mucosal adjuvant that greatly enhances IgG and IgA immune responses, but its adjuvant effects for cellular immunity, particularly class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, are less well understood. In the present report, CT and the purified non-toxic B component (CTB) were assessed for their(More)
There are many different ways of building software applications and of tackling the problems of understanding the system to be built, designing that system and finally implementing the design. One approach is to use formal methods, which we can generalise as meaning we follow a process which uses some formal language to specify the behaviour of the intended(More)
Before we build any piece of software we would, surely, need to be certain that what we intend to build is what is required by the users of that software. In addition, we would want to be sure that the proposed software will behave as expected, do the right thing under all circumstances and also be usable. These functional and usability requirements are(More)
The infectivity, dissemination, and transmissibility of wild-type Sindbis (SIN) virus were studied in Aedes aegypti (L). There was an initial decline in the viral titer of whole mosquitoes for 3 d after ingestion of virus, followed by a gradual increase to a maximal level by day 6. Immunoperoxidase staining of Ae. aegypti for viral antigen showed infection(More)