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Participants were 55 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were receiving ongoing treatment with stimulant medications and their mothers, and 31 children with ADHD who were beginning stimulant medication and their mothers. Mothers and children offered attributions for child behaviors that occurred when the child was medicated and(More)
The problem of data assimilation can be viewed as one of synchronizing two dynamical systems, one representing " truth " and the other representing " model " , with a unidirectional flow of information between the two. Synchronization of truth and model defines a general view of data assimilation, as machine perception, that is reminiscent of the Jung-Pauli(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES While genital ulcers are a risk factor in HIV infection, the association of specific agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) with HIV infection may vary. GOAL To determine the etiology of GUD in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Durban, Johannesburg, and Cape Town, South(More)
A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals(More)
A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) was compared with clinical and standard laboratory methods for the diagnosis of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in 105 patients; 36% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive. Chancroid (80%), syphilis (8%), and genital(More)
A sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction-based assay has been developed to detect and analyze polymorphism in the Giardia lamblia 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Efficient amplification required the inclusion of cosolvents (glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide) in the reaction. Following the optimization of conditions for amplification and subsequent(More)
DNA probe and PCR-based assays to identify and detect parasites are technically complex; however, they have high sensitivity, directly detect parasites independent of the immunocompetence or previous clinical history of the patient, and can distinguish between organisms that are morphologically similar. Diagnosis of parasites is often based on direct(More)
Infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea among travelers and residents of developing countries. ETEC produces either a heat-stable toxin or a heat-labile toxin, or both, encoded by plasmid-borne ST and LT genes, respectively. Diagnosis of infection with this subclass of E. coli can be performed with(More)
A sensitive and specific PCR-based assay to detect the Helicobacter pylori 16S rRNA gene present in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens has been developed. A total of 95 patients with dyspepsia were evaluated for the presence of chronic active gastritis and an infection with H. pylori through the use of diagnostic assays based on(More)
To determine the etiology of genital ulcers and to assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in ulcer patients in 10 US cities, ulcer and serum specimens were collected from approximately 50 ulcer patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in each city. Ulcer specimens were tested using a multiplex polymerase chain(More)