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Journals and Conferences
Cellular immune responses are required for protective immunity against Leishmania chagasi. Immunization strategies using live intracellular bacteria (e.g., bacille-Calmette Guerin strain of Mycobacterium bovis) expressing recombinant antigens can induce cellular immune responses to these antigens. Previous studies demonstrated that the L. chagasi antigen… (More)
Protective immunity against Leishmania major is provided by s.c. immunization with a low dose of L. major promastigotes or with dihydrofolate-thymidylate synthase gene locus (DHFR-TS) gene knockout L. major organisms. Whether these vaccine strategies will protect against infection with other Leishmania species that elicit distinct immune responses and… (More)
The ability of the protozoan Leishmania chagasi to infect a vertebrate host depends on its ability to survive intracellularly in a mammalian macrophage. Novel patterns of gene expression are probably important for conversion from the extracellular promastigote to the obligate intracellular amastigote parasite form. We found that the human macrophage-like… (More)
Visceral leishmaniasis presents a serious problem in endemic regions that is difficult to treat or prevent. Several epidemiologic problems make the disease particularly troublesome to manage. These include the facts that classic visceral leishmaniasis is fatal if untreated and there is not reliable access to medical care in many endemic regions. When… (More)
Cure of leishmaniasis requires a type 1 immune response characterized by IFN-gamma production. Leishmania major infection leads to a type 2 response suppressing cure of susceptible BALB/c mice, and L. major causes an exacerbated type 2 response in mouse strains with a gene knockout (KO) such that they lack IL-12p40 (IL-12KO mice). In contrast, type 1… (More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was the most common nosocomial infection in the U.S. in 2010. Most cases of CDI respond to a standard course of antibiotics, but recurrent C. difficile infections (RCDI) are increasingly common. Given the lack of randomized clinical trials, it is important to understand how infectious disease physicians are… (More)
International travel and a global expansion of dengue fever have the potential to increase the incidence of dengue in the United States. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of trends in dengue among hospitalized patients by using the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2007); the number of cases more than tripled (p<0.0001).
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus, which inhabits the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Infections classically affect the head and neck. We report a patient with a myocardial mass due to F. nucleatum, initially thought to be a neoplasm, and discuss anaerobic cardiac infections.
BACKGROUND Infectious disease specialists who evaluate international travelers before or after their trips need skills to prevent, recognize, and treat an increasingly broad range of infectious diseases. Wide variation exists in training and percentage effort among providers of this care. In parallel, there may be variations in approach to pre-travel… (More)
We compared the observations of nearly 1,400 hand-hygiene-related events recorded by an automated system and by human observers. Observation details differed for 38% of these events. Two likely explanations for these inconsistencies were the distance between the observer and the event and the busyness of the clinic.