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W ith successful antiretroviral therapy, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer; however, recent reports suggest increased rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) among HIV-infected patients , 1 and cardiovascular disease has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. 2 Increased CHD rates(More)
OBJECTIVE Alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism, lactic acidemia, bone disorders, and abnormal body fat distribution have been recognized recently as frequent complications associated with HIV-1 infection and potent antiretroviral therapy, but limited data are available regarding the appropriate management of these disorders. These recommendations(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic effects following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) vary by regimen type. Changes in metabolic effects were assessed following cART in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5257 study, and correlated with plasma ritonavir trough concentrations (C24). METHODS Treatment-naive adult subjects were randomized to ritonavir-boosted(More)
HIV risk behaviors, susceptibility to HIV acquisition, progression of disease after infection, and response to antiretroviral therapy all vary by age. In those living with HIV, current effective treatment has increased the median life expectancy to >70 years of age. Biologic, medical, individual, social, and societal issues change as one ages with HIV(More)
I n the mid-1990s, case reports of myocardial infarction (MI) in young patients infected with human immunodefi-ciency virus (HIV) sparked interest in the relationship between HIV infection and cardiovascular disease (CVD). 1,2 Although the initial focus was primarily on the relationship between dyslipidemia associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and(More)
BACKGROUND Peripartum administration of single-dose nevirapine reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but selects for nevirapine-resistant virus. METHODS In seven African countries, women infected with HIV-1 whose CD4+ T-cell counts were below 200 per cubic millimeter and who either had or had not taken(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing and better safety are needed to maximize the efficiency of antiretroviral delivery in resource-limited settings. We investigated the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral regimens with once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing in diverse areas of the world. METHODS AND FINDINGS 1,571 HIV-1-infected(More)
BACKGROUND The relationships between soluble CD14 (sCD14), endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and progression of atherosclerosis have not been defined in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We retrospectively assessed serum sCD14 and LPS levels of 91 subjects in a prospective 3-year study of carotid artery intima-media thickness(More)
Metabolic, opportunistic, and other infectious complications of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy continue to be major areas of active investigation. This year's Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections included many important presentations on the clinical aspects of HIV complications. In each successive year, the studies reported in(More)