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BACKGROUND In areas of endemic transmission, malaria in pregnancy is associated with severe maternal anaemia and low-birthweight babies. We studied the efficacy of intermittent treatment doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in preventing malaria and severe anaemia in pregnancy in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial among primigravid women living in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for poor birth outcome and their population attributable fractions. METHODS 1688 women who attended for antenatal care were recruited into a prospective study of the effectiveness of syphilis screening and treatment. All women were screened and treated for syphilis and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) during(More)
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnancy-associated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum adherence to chondroitin sulfate A in the placental intervillous space is a major cause of low birthweight and maternal anaemia in areas of endemic P falciparum transmission. Adhesion-blocking antibodies that specifically recognise parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSA) are(More)
Remodeling of uterine spiral arteries is critical for the continuation of a successful pregnancy. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are the predominant leukocyte population in the early pregnant decidua, and a role for these cells in spiral artery remodeling in pregnancy has been suggested. Angiogenic growth factors were measured in isolated uNK and total(More)
BACKGROUND Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are a major source of cytokines and angiogenic growth factors (AGFs), with AGF levels decreasing and cytokine levels increasing with gestational age. The factors that regulate AGF and cytokine secretion are unclear but may involve interactions between uNK cells and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells. We(More)
BACKGROUND Increased numbers of phenotypically unusual CD56(bright) CD16- uterine natural killer (uNK) cells have been associated with recurrent reproductive failure. uNK cells produce angiogenic growth factors and are potential regulators of decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy. The final common mechanism for early pregnancy loss is thought to be early(More)
BACKGROUND Extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell invasion of uterine decidua and the inner third of myometrium is critical for successful pregnancy. Many decidual factors are likely to play a role in regulating this process. We have previously shown that cytokines, known to be produced by uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, such as TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and(More)
Human securin, known also as PTTG, has established oncogenic and cell cycle regulatory functions. PTTG/securin transforms cells in vitro, inhibits sister chromatid separation, and regulates secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2. FGF-2 is a key regulator of CNS development and PTTG/securin expression has been reported in murine fetal brain. We examined the(More)
BACKGROUND Angiogenesis is a key feature of endometrial development. Inappropriate endometrial vascular development has been associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) with increased amounts of perivascular smooth muscle cells surrounding them. METHODS In the current study, we have used immunohistochemistry to study temporal and spatial expression of a(More)