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The cell-free layer (CFL) width separating red blood cells in flowing blood from the endothelial cell membrane is shown to be a regulator of the balance between nitric oxide (NO) production by the endothelium and NO scavenging by blood hemoglobin. The CFL width is determined by hematocrit (Hct) and the vessel wall flow velocity gradient. These factors and(More)
Hematocrit (Hct) of awake hamsters and CD-1 mice was acutely increased by isovolemic exchange transfusion of packed red blood cells (RBCs) to assess the relation between Hct and blood pressure. Increasing Hct 7-13% of baseline decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) by 13 mmHg. Increasing Hct above 19% reversed this trend and caused MAP to rise above(More)
Dilutional coagulopathy can be reversed with fibrinogen concentrate. Effects of different fibrinogen dosages on clot function are not defined; high doses may increase the risk of thromboemboembolism. This study investigated the effect of six fibrinogen dosages on coagulation profile and blood loss in coagulopathic pigs. Forty-two pigs underwent a 60%(More)
The circulation is adapted to specific levels of blood viscosity resulting in a balance that simultaneously sets peripheral vascular resistance, blood pressure and cardiac output, factors in part mediated by the production of nitric oxide by the endothelium. Although it is generally perceived that decreasing blood viscosity is beneficial for cardiovascular(More)
INTRODUCTION This study was designed to examine differences in the arteriolar vasoconstrictive response between arginine vasopressin (AVP) and norepinephrine (NE) on the microcirculatory level in the hamster window chamber model in unanesthetized, normotonic hamsters using intravital microscopy. It is known from patients with advanced vasodilatory shock(More)
Responses to exchange transfusion with red blood cells (RBCs) containing methemoglobin (MetRBC) were studied in an acute isovolemic hemodiluted hamster window chamber model to determine whether oxygen content participates in the regulation of systemic and microvascular conditions during extreme hemodilution. Two isovolemic hemodilution steps were performed(More)
BACKGROUND This study was conducted to assess whether the combined administration of fibrinogen and prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) enables the reversal of dilutional coagulopathy resulting from intended blood loss and fluid replacement, and whether this treatment reduces further blood loss and mortality. METHODS In 20 anaesthetized pigs,(More)
Decreasing blood viscosity has been proposed since the advent of hemodilution as a means for increasing perfusion in many pathological conditions, and increased plasma viscosity is associated with the presence of pathological conditions. However, experimental studies show that microvascular functions as represented by functional capillary density in(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare survival after exchange transfusion followed by hemorrhage using: 1) the vasoactive, oxygen-carrying, bovine hemoglobin-based blood substitute Oxyglobin (Biopure, 12.9 g hemoglobin/dL); and 2) the hydroxyethyl starch plasma expander Hextend (high molecular weight and low degree of substitution, 6%). DESIGN Comparison between(More)
The hematocrit (Hct) of awake hamsters was lowered to 90% of baseline by isovolemic hemodilution using hamster plasma to determine the acute effect of small changes in Hct and blood viscosity on systemic hemodynamics. Mean arterial blood pressure increased, reaching a maximum of about 10% above baseline (8.6 +/- 5.5 mmHg) when Hct decreased 8.4 +/- 1.9% (P(More)