Judith M. Orasanu

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INTRODUCTION Approaches to mitigating the likelihood of psychosocial problems during space missions emphasize preflight measures such as team training and team composition. Additionally, it may be necessary to monitor team interactions during missions for signs of interpersonal stress. The present research was conducted to identify features in team members'(More)
OBJECTIVE This article aims to explore the nature and resolution of breakdowns in coordinated decision making in distributed safety-critical systems. BACKGROUND In safety-critical domains, people with different roles and responsibilities often must work together to make coordinated decisions while geographically distributed. Although there is likely to be(More)
OBJECTIVE The presence of social psychological pressures on pilot decision making was assessed using qualitative analyses of critical incident interviews. BACKGROUND Social psychological phenomena have long been known to influence attitudes and behavior but have not been highlighted in accident investigation models. METHOD Using a critical incident(More)
Designers of new automated systems typically conduct human-reliability analyses to account for potential human errors that may contribute to system risk. In aviation, the National Transportation Safety Board (1994) found that the second most common type of error in accidents was tactical decision errors. Efforts to improve flight safety frequently involve(More)
2 Introduction 3 The Pragmatic Context of Analogical Mapping 4 The purpose of analogy 4 Subprocesses of analogy 5 Previous models of analogical mapping 8 A Theory on Analogical Mapping 10 The need for constraints 10 Five constraints on mapping 11 ACME: A cooperative algorithm for mapping 14 Applications of ACME 18 Problem analogies 18 Explanatory analogies(More)
INTRODUCTION The context in which a decision is made can shape the decision process in important ways. Of particular interest here are 'strong' situations, that is, contexts where the situation itself exerts an influence on decision making. Borrowing concepts from field theory and approach/avoidance theory, this paper explores the influence of strong(More)
* Paper presented at the 50 Astronautical Congress in Amsterdam, Oct. 1999. Copyright © 1999 by the authors. Published by the American Institute of Astronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. Released to IAF/IAA/AIAA to publish in all forms. Abstract Four studies were conducted to identify effective communication strategies for calling attention(More)
INTRODUCTION Recent attention has focused on the way in which organizational factors can erode safety in aviation, particularly in regions that have a high accident rate, such as Alaska. The present study builds on this work by examining the direct and indirect pressures that can be exerted on pilots by Alaskan operators. In addition, the paper examines(More)