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This study examined how pre-existing emotional and personality vulnerability factors affect responses to an analogue trauma experience. Sixty-eight undergraduate participants viewed a distressing film and completed measures of trait anxiety, intelligence, depression, trait dissociation, as well as changes in state anxiety, then recorded intrusions over the(More)
Patients with generalized social phobia (GSP, N = 33) and matched community controls (N = 31) engaged in a social interaction that was constructed to go well, and then received feedback that framed social cues reflecting either the absence of negative outcomes or the presence of positive outcomes. Following feedback that framed positive social cues, the GSP(More)
Avoidant Personality Disorder (APD) is the topic of a growing body of research literature. In this article, we review empirical studies of APD with the goals of identifying the themes that underlie this work and pointing to new directions for future research. In particular, we recommend that future studies evaluate several unique factors postulated by(More)
Research suggests that individuals with social phobia fear positive social events and interpret them in a negative fashion that serves to maintain anxiety. To better elucidate the nature and role of interpretation of positive events in social phobia, two studies were conducted. Study 1 examined symptom and cognitive correlates of negative interpretation of(More)
Intrusions are often considered the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite this, relatively little is known about factors that give rise to intrusions. Cognitive models of PTSD highlight the importance of pre-existing cognitive vulnerabilities, cognitive processing and anxiety during a traumatic event, as well as negative responses to(More)
Although social avoidance is a defining feature of avoidant personality disorder (APD), some theorists posit that APD is characterized by a broader pattern of avoidance that extends beyond social situations. This paper describes a series of four studies that examined the different types of nonsocial avoidance hypothesized to characterize APD in three(More)
We report four independent studies that examined the relationship between social interaction anxiety and the tendency to interpret positive social events in a threat-maintaining manner. Study 1 described the development of a scale that measures negative interpretations of positive social events, the interpretation of positive events scale (IPES). Study 2(More)
According to cognitive theorists, intrusive trauma memories have their origin in how information during the event is processed. Two studies investigated functional cognitive strategies during medical crises that might protect against intrusions. In Study 1, interviews with health-care professionals were used to identify cognitive strategies judged to be(More)
BACKGROUND Research on post-event processing (PEP), where individuals conduct a post-mortem evaluation of a social situation, has focused primarily on its relationship with social anxiety. AIMS The current study examined: 1) levels of PEP for a standardized event in different anxiety disorders; 2) the relationship between peak anxiety levels during this(More)
Meta-analyses indicate that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) leads to substantial symptom alleviation. Although there is an emphasis on engaging in exposure and cognitive restructuring during treatment, the longitudinal relationship between skill use and symptom alleviation is not well understood. Furthermore, treatment(More)