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We report four independent studies that examined the relationship between social interaction anxiety and the tendency to interpret positive social events in a threat-maintaining manner. Study 1 described the development of a scale that measures negative interpretations of positive social events, the interpretation of positive events scale (IPES). Study 2(More)
Although social avoidance is a defining feature of avoidant personality disorder (APD), some theorists posit that APD is characterized by a broader pattern of avoidance that extends beyond social situations. This paper describes a series of four studies that examined the different types of nonsocial avoidance hypothesized to characterize APD in three(More)
INTRODUCTION Work-related stress in the emergency department previously has been linked to depression and burnout; however, these findings have not been extended to the development of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three sets of factors have been shown to contribute to stress in ED personnel: organizational characteristics,(More)
Avoidant Personality Disorder (APD) is the topic of a growing body of research literature. In this article, we review empirical studies of APD with the goals of identifying the themes that underlie this work and pointing to new directions for future research. In particular, we recommend that future studies evaluate several unique factors postulated by(More)
Ehlers and Clark (Behav. Res. Ther., 38 (2000) 319) recently proposed a cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, we examined two facets of this model, appraisal and peritraumatic dissociation, in the context of a hospital emergency room. Fifty-one emergency room personnel completed questionnaires measuring posttraumatic stress(More)
Patients with generalized social phobia (GSP, N = 33) and matched community controls (N = 31) engaged in a social interaction that was constructed to go well, and then received feedback that framed social cues reflecting either the absence of negative outcomes or the presence of positive outcomes. Following feedback that framed positive social cues, the GSP(More)
This study examined how pre-existing emotional and personality vulnerability factors affect responses to an analogue trauma experience. Sixty-eight undergraduate participants viewed a distressing film and completed measures of trait anxiety, intelligence, depression, trait dissociation, as well as changes in state anxiety, then recorded intrusions over the(More)
Research suggests that individuals with social phobia fear positive social events and interpret them in a negative fashion that serves to maintain anxiety. To better elucidate the nature and role of interpretation of positive events in social phobia, two studies were conducted. Study 1 examined symptom and cognitive correlates of negative interpretation of(More)
Intrusions are often considered the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite this, relatively little is known about factors that give rise to intrusions. Cognitive models of PTSD highlight the importance of pre-existing cognitive vulnerabilities, cognitive processing and anxiety during a traumatic event, as well as negative responses to(More)
There is a growing interest in the role of distress tolerance (i.e., the capacity to withstand negative emotions) in the onset and maintenance of anxiety. However, both empirical and theoretical knowledge regarding the role of distress tolerance in the anxiety disorders is relatively under examined. Accumulating evidence supports the relationship between(More)