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The sexual dimorphic position of the gonads in mammals is dependent on differential development of two ligaments, the cranial suspensory ligament (CSL) and the gubernaculum. During male embryogenesis, outgrowth of the gubernaculum and regression of the CSL result in transabdominal descent of the testes, whereas in the female, development of the CSL in(More)
INSL3, also designated Leydig insulin-like (Ley I-L) or relaxin-like factor (RLF), belongs to the insulin-like hormone superfamily. It is expressed in pre- and postnatal Leydig cells of the testis and in postnatal theca cells of the ovary. This sexual dimorphic pattern of INSL3 expression during development led us to suggest that the INSL3 factor could play(More)
The gubernaculum connects the gonad to the inguinoscrotal region and is involved in testis descent. It rapidly develops in the male fetus, whereas development in the female fetus is lacking. Possible factors involved in gubernaculum development are androgens, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and insulin-like factor (Insl3). Sexual dimorphism in gubernaculum(More)
Both estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta are expressed within the ovary and lack of either of these receptors affects ovarian function. In this study, the role of ERalpha and ERbeta in folliculogenesis and ovulation was further analyzed. Evaluation of ovarian follicle populations in wild-type and ERbeta knockout (betaERKO) ovaries revealed reduced late(More)
Recently, it has been shown that targeted inactivation of the Insl3 gene in male mice results in cryptorchidism. The Insl3 gene encodes insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3), which is expressed in fetal Leydig cells. The testicular factor Insl3 appears to play an important role in the transabdominal phase of testis descent, which involves development of the(More)
The cranial suspensory ligament is located on the border of the cranial (mesonephric) mesentery in adult female mammals, which runs between the cranial pole of the internal genitalia and the dorsal abdominal wall. Absence of the cranial suspensory ligament in male mammals depends upon exposure of its primordium to fetal testicular androgens and is a(More)
The present review aims to present a perspectiveon a relatively unknown part of the mammalian internal genitalia: their cranial suspensory apparatus. This apparatus shows wide divergence of development when examined during the fetal period or during adulthood, in males or females, or in individuals across a variety of species. In rats and other mamalian(More)
BACKGROUND Three novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have recently been registered by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency Commission: dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. To quantify DOACs in plasma, various dedicated coagulation assays have been developed. OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a reference ultra-performance(More)
Targeted disruption of the different ER genes has generated experimental animal models that are very useful in evaluating the distinct and cooperative roles of the two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, in reproductive but also non-reproductive tissues of both sexes. Phenotypic analysis has provided definitive experimental findings for estrogen(More)
Excess androgen synthesis by thecal cells is invariably detrimental to preovulatory follicles in the ovary and is considered a fundamental characteristic of polycystic ovary syndrome in women. Investigators have long postulated that granulosa cell-derived estrogens modulate thecal cell steroidogenesis via a short negative-feedback loop within the follicle.(More)