Judith L Goldstein

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In a recent article in the American Economic Review, Andrew K. Rose (2004) finds that countries belonging to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO), did not trade more than countries that abstained from membership. A vast literature on the GATT and the WTO presupposes that these organizations(More)
D oes globalization's impact on the labor market affect how people vote? I address this question using a new dataset based on plant-level data that measures the impact of foreign competition on the U.S. workforce over an 8-year period. Analyzing change in the president's vote share, I find that voters were substantially more sensitive to the loss of local(More)
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ~GATT! and the World Trade Organization ~WTO! have been touted as premier examples of international institutions, but few studies have offered empirical proof+ This article comprehensively evaluates the effects of the GATT0WTO and other trade agreements since World War II+ Our analysis is organized around two(More)
Recent research concludes that membership in the GATT/WTO had no effect on foreign trade. By mistakenly classifying many countries as outsiders, even though they had rights and obligations under the agreement, this work systematically underestimates the effect of GATT. We correct the downward bias in previous estimates. Our analyses show that GATT(More)
T his article investigates the nature of the linkages between trade and labor rights in developing countries. Specifically, we hypothesize that a " California effect " serves to transmit superior labor standards from importing to exporting countries, in a manner similar to the transmission of environmental standards. We maintain that, all else being equal,(More)
This paper examines when and how international institutions promote cooperation. We introduce two concepts, institutional standing and institutional embeddedness, and show that both are essential to understanding the main commercial agreement of the postwar period. To see how GATT influences trade, we (1) consider all parties with legal standing, not simply(More)
What explains the developing world's newfound enthusiasm for free trade? Are developing country leaders jumping on the NAFTA, EU, APEC, and WTO bandwagons in order to achieve Pareto-improving gains? Or might it simply be their desire not to be left behind while their neighbors " go it alone " ? This article suggests that in many cases — and in direct(More)
NBER working papers are circulated for discussion and comment purposes. They have not been peer-reviewed or been subject to the review by the NBER Board of Directors that accompanies official NBER publications. ABSTRACT How high were import tariffs when GATT participants began negotiations to reduce them in 1947? Establishing this starting point is key to(More)