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The accumulation of misfolded proteins in intracellular amyloid inclusions, typical of many neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's and prion disease, is thought to occur after failure of the cellular protein quality control mechanisms. Here we examine the formation of misfolded protein inclusions in the eukaryotic cytosol of yeast and mammalian(More)
The folding of polypeptides emerging from ribosomes was analysed in a mammalian translation system using firefly luciferase as a model protein. The growing polypeptide interacts with a specific set of molecular chaperones, including Hsp70, the DnaJ homologue Hsp40 and the chaperonin TRiC. The ordered assembly of these components on the nascent chain forms a(More)
Recent years have witnessed dramatic advances in our understanding of how newly translated proteins fold in the cell and the contribution of molecular chaperones to this process. Folding in the cell must be achieved in a highly crowded macromolecular environment, in which release of nonnative polypeptides into the cytosolic solution might lead to formation(More)
Molecular chaperones in the eukaryotic cytosol were shown to interact differently with chemically denatured proteins and their newly translated counterparts. During refolding from denaturant, actin partitioned freely between 70-kilodalton heat shock protein, the bulk cytosol, and the chaperonin TCP1-ring complex. In contrast, during cell-free translation,(More)
T-complex polypeptide 1 (TCP-1) was analyzed as a potential chaperonin (GroEL/Hsp60) equivalent of the eukaryotic cytosol. We found TCP-1 to be part of a hetero-oligomeric 970 kDa complex containing several structurally related subunits of 52-65 kDa. These members of a new protein family are assembled into a TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) which resembles the(More)
Molecular chaperones play a fundamental role in cellular protein folding. Using intact mammalian cells we examined the contribution of cytosolic chaperones to de novo folding. A large fraction of newly translated polypeptides associate transiently with Hsc70 and the chaperonin TRiC/CCT during their biogenesis. The substrate repertoire observed for Hsc70 and(More)
Aggregation of proteins containing polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease. Molecular chaperones modulate the aggregation and toxicity of the huntingtin (Htt) protein by an ill-defined mechanism. Here we determine how the chaperonin TRiC suppresses Htt aggregation. Unexpectedly, TRiC(More)
Recent findings emphasize that different molecular chaperones cooperate during intracellular protein biogenesis. Mechanistic aspects of chaperone cooperation are now emerging from studies on the regulation of certain signal transduction pathways mediated by Hsc70 and Hsp90 in the eukaryotic cytosol. Efficient cooperation appears to be achieved through a(More)
Molecular chaperones such as Hsp70 use ATP binding and hydrolysis to prevent aggregation and ensure the efficient folding of newly translated and stress-denatured polypeptides. Eukaryotic cells contain several cytosolic Hsp70 subfamilies. In yeast, these include the Hsp70s SSB and SSA as well as the Hsp110-like Sse1/2p. The cellular functions and interplay(More)
The choice of codons can influence local translation kinetics during protein synthesis. Whether codon preference is linked to cotranslational regulation of polypeptide folding remains unclear. Here, we derive a revised translational efficiency scale that incorporates the competition between tRNA supply and demand. Applying this scale to ten closely related(More)