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The accumulation of misfolded proteins in intracellular amyloid inclusions, typical of many neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's and prion disease, is thought to occur after failure of the cellular protein quality control mechanisms. Here we examine the formation of misfolded protein inclusions in the eukaryotic cytosol of yeast and mammalian(More)
Recent years have witnessed dramatic advances in our understanding of how newly translated proteins fold in the cell and the contribution of molecular chaperones to this process. Folding in the cell must be achieved in a highly crowded macromolecular environment, in which release of nonnative polypeptides into the cytosolic solution might lead to formation(More)
The folding of polypeptides emerging from ribosomes was analysed in a mammalian translation system using firefly luciferase as a model protein. The growing polypeptide interacts with a specific set of molecular chaperones, including Hsp70, the DnaJ homologue Hsp40 and the chaperonin TRiC. The ordered assembly of these components on the nascent chain forms a(More)
The extensive links between proteotoxic stress, protein aggregation and pathologies ranging from ageing to neurodegeneration underscore the importance of understanding how cells manage protein misfolding. Using live-cell imaging, we determine the fate of stress-induced misfolded proteins from their initial appearance until their elimination. Upon(More)
A comprehensive understanding of the cellular functions of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone has remained elusive. Although Hsp90 is essential, highly abundant under normal conditions, and further induced by environmental stress, only a limited number of Hsp90 "clients" have been identified. To define Hsp90 function, a panel of genome-wide chemical-genetic(More)
Molecular chaperones in the eukaryotic cytosol were shown to interact differently with chemically denatured proteins and their newly translated counterparts. During refolding from denaturant, actin partitioned freely between 70-kilodalton heat shock protein, the bulk cytosol, and the chaperonin TCP1-ring complex. In contrast, during cell-free translation,(More)
The choice of codons can influence local translation kinetics during protein synthesis. Whether codon preference is linked to cotranslational regulation of polypeptide folding remains unclear. Here, we derive a revised translational efficiency scale that incorporates the competition between tRNA supply and demand. Applying this scale to ten closely related(More)
The genome diversity of RNA viruses allows for rapid adaptation to a wide variety of adverse conditions. Accordingly, viruses can escape inhibition by most antiviral compounds targeting either viral or host factors. Here we exploited the capacity of RNA viruses for rapid adaptation to explore the evolutionary constraints of chaperone-mediated protein(More)
Aggregation of proteins containing polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease. Molecular chaperones modulate the aggregation and toxicity of the huntingtin (Htt) protein by an ill-defined mechanism. Here we determine how the chaperonin TRiC suppresses Htt aggregation. Unexpectedly, TRiC(More)
Molecular chaperones such as Hsp70 use ATP binding and hydrolysis to prevent aggregation and ensure the efficient folding of newly translated and stress-denatured polypeptides. Eukaryotic cells contain several cytosolic Hsp70 subfamilies. In yeast, these include the Hsp70s SSB and SSA as well as the Hsp110-like Sse1/2p. The cellular functions and interplay(More)