Judith E . Mank

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Recent reports have suggested that birds lack a mechanism of wholesale dosage compensation for the Z sex chromosome. This discovery was rather unexpected, as all other animals investigated with chromosomal mechanisms of sex determination have some method to counteract the effects of gene dosage of the dominant sex chromosome in males and females. Despite(More)
We compiled information from the literature on the taxonomic distributions in extant teleost fishes of alternative sex-determination systems: male-heterogametic (XY) gonochorism, female-heterogametic (ZW) gonochorism, hermaphroditism, unisexuality, and environmental dependency. Then, using recently published molecular phylogenies based on whole-genomic or(More)
Sex chromosomes often entail gene dose differences between the sexes, which if not compensated for, lead to differences between males and females in the expression of sex-linked genes. Recent work has shown that different organisms respond to sex chromosome dose in a variety of ways, ranging from complete sex chromosome dosage compensation in some species(More)
Gene expression differences between the sexes account for the majority of sexually dimorphic phenotypes, and the study of sex-biased gene expression is important for understanding the genetic basis of complex sexual dimorphisms. However, it has been difficult to test the nature of this relationship due to the fact that sexual dimorphism has traditionally(More)
In species with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, imbalances in gene dosage between the sexes can affect overall organismal fitness. Regulatory mechanisms were discovered in several unrelated animals, which counter gene-dose differences between females and males, and these early findings suggested that dosage-compensating mechanisms were required for(More)
The X or Z chromosome has several characteristics that distinguish it from the autosomes, namely hemizygosity in the heterogametic sex, and a potentially different effective population size, both of which may influence the rate and nature of evolution. In particular, there may be an accelerated rate of adaptive change for X-linked compared to autosomal(More)
Among major vertebrate groups, ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) collectively display a nearly unrivaled diversity of parental care activities. This fact, coupled with a growing body of phylogenetic data for Actinopterygii, makes these fishes a logical model system for analyzing the evolutionary histories of alternative parental care modes and associated(More)
Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater expression due to the doubled gene dose. Many organisms with heteromorphic sex chromosomes display global dosage(More)
Females and males of many animals exhibit a striking array of sexual dimorphisms, ranging from the primary differences of the gametes and gonads to the somatic differences often seen in behavior, morphology, and physiology. These differences raise many questions regarding how such divergent phenotypes can arise from a genome that is largely shared between(More)
Sexual reproduction is an ancient feature of life on earth, and the familiar X and Y chromosomes in humans and other model species have led to the impression that sex determination mechanisms are old and conserved. In fact, males and females are determined by diverse mechanisms that evolve rapidly in many taxa. Yet this diversity in primary sex-determining(More)