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Recent reports have suggested that birds lack a mechanism of wholesale dosage compensation for the Z sex chromosome. This discovery was rather unexpected, as all other animals investigated with chromosomal mechanisms of sex determination have some method to counteract the effects of gene dosage of the dominant sex chromosome in males and females. Despite(More)
Sex chromosomes often entail gene dose differences between the sexes, which if not compensated for, lead to differences between males and females in the expression of sex-linked genes. Recent work has shown that different organisms respond to sex chromosome dose in a variety of ways, ranging from complete sex chromosome dosage compensation in some species(More)
Females and males of many animals exhibit a striking array of sexual dimorphisms, ranging from the primary differences of the gametes and gonads to the somatic differences often seen in behavior, morphology, and physiology. These differences raise many questions regarding how such divergent phenotypes can arise from a genome that is largely shared between(More)
The numerous physiological and phenotypic differences between the sexes, as well as the disparity between male and female reproductive interests, result in sexual conflicts, which are often manifested at the genomic level. Sexually antagonistic genes benefit one sex at the expense of the other and experience strong pressure to evolve male- and(More)
In species with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, imbalances in gene dosage between the sexes can affect overall organismal fitness. Regulatory mechanisms were discovered in several unrelated animals, which counter gene-dose differences between females and males, and these early findings suggested that dosage-compensating mechanisms were required for(More)
Three principal types of chromosomal sex determination are found in nature: male heterogamety (XY systems, as in mammals), female heterogamety (ZW systems, as in birds), and haploid phase determination (UV systems, as in some algae and bryophytes). Although these systems share many common features, there are important biological differences between them(More)
Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater expression due to the doubled gene dose. Many organisms with heteromorphic sex chromosomes display global dosage(More)
The X or Z chromosome has several characteristics that distinguish it from the autosomes, namely hemizygosity in the heterogametic sex, and a potentially different effective population size, both of which may influence the rate and nature of evolution. In particular, there may be an accelerated rate of adaptive change for X-linked compared to autosomal(More)
Following the suppression of recombination, gene expression levels decline on the sex-limited chromosome, and this can lead to selection for dosage compensation in the heterogametic sex to rebalance average expression from the X or Z chromosome with average autosomal expression. At the same time, due to their unequal pattern of inheritance in males and(More)
Genes linked to sex chromosomes may show different levels of functional change than autosomal genes due to different evolutionary pressures. We used whole-genome data from zebra finch-chicken orthologs to test for Faster-Z evolution, finding that Z-linked genes evolve up to 50% more rapidly than autosomal genes. We combined these divergence data with(More)