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In this paper we present a methodology for analyzing polyphonic musical passages comprised by notes that exhibit a harmonically fixed spectral profile (such as piano notes). Taking advantage of this unique note structure we can model the audio content of the musical passage by a linear basis transform and use non-negative matrix decomposition methods to(More)
  • J C Brown
  • 1999
Cepstral coefficients based on a constant Q transform have been calculated for 28 short (1-2 s) oboe sounds and 52 short saxophone sounds. These were used as features in a pattern analysis to determine for each of these sounds comprising the test set whether it belongs to the oboe or to the sax class. The training set consisted of longer sounds of 1 min or(More)
The automatic identification of musical instruments is a relatively unexplored and potentially very important field for its promise to free humans from time-consuming searches on the Internet and indexing of audio material. Speaker identification techniques have been used in this paper to determine the properties (features) which are most effective in(More)
The method of principal component analysis, which is based on second-order statistics (or linear independence), has long been used for redundancy reduction of audio data. The more recent technique of independent component analysis, enforcing much stricter statistical criteria based on higher-order statistical independence, is introduced and shown to be far(More)
The determination of the pitch center of frequency modulated sounds has been the focus of a number of previous studies. The sources have usually been pure tones or synthetic complex sounds with a well-defined spectral composition. These synthetic sounds differ in temporal and spectral properties from the sounds produced by musical instruments; and it is(More)
In two recent papers, a description is given of a means of obtaining an arbitrarily narrow peak in the calculation of the autocorrelation function [ (1989) ] or era narrow valley in the calculation of an inverse autocorrelation [ These calculations are applied to the determination of the fundamental frequency of musical signals produced by keyboard, wind,(More)
— The phase vocoder is a well-known technique for dividing an audio signal into time-varying sinusoidal components and estimating their frequencies and amplitudes. The accuracy of the frequency estimates is studied here by predicting, and then measuring experimentally, the magnitude of errors due to two factors: 1) interference between different components,(More)
(1992}] has been adapted so that it is suitable for tracking the fundamental frequency of extremely rapid musical passages. For this purpose the calculation described previously has been modified so that it is constant frequency resolution rather than constant Q for lower frequency bins. This modified calculation serves as the input for a fundamental(More)
A set of killer whale sounds from Marineland were recently classified automatically [Brown et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, EL34-EL40 (2006)] into call types using dynamic time warping (DTW), multidimensional scaling, and kmeans clustering to give near-perfect agreement with a perceptual classification. Here the effectiveness of four DTW algorithms on a(More)