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Due to the lack of information on the effects of inhaled Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash and its potential interaction with sulfur dioxide (SO2), animal studies were performed to determine the acute and chronic health effects of a short-term exposure. This paper describes the inhalation exposure system designed for these studies and theoretically compares the(More)
Mice were injected intratracheally with silica or Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash (0.2 mg/g body weight) and examined 6 mo later for changes in pulmonary function, histology, and hydroxyproline content. Results were compared with a similar study using rats. Mice injected with volcanic ash showed significant changes only in wet lung weights. Those injected with(More)
The ability of particulate air pollutants (and possible constituents) to alter pulmonary host defenses was examined using an in vitro alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity assay and an in vivo bacterial infectivity screening test which employed intratracheal injection of the particles. A wide range of response between particles was seen at the 1.0-mg/ml level in(More)
Mice immunized intraperitoneally with sheep erythrocytes were treated with nickel chloride, a common particulate air pollutant. Primary antibody production in the spleen was examined using a hemolytic plaque technique. A negative linear dose-response relationship (p is less than 0.05) was observed between the logarithm of (plaques/10(6) cells) and the(More)
To develop a less reactogenic but equally immunogenic vaccine, this study of 91 human volunteers compared the safety and immunogenic potency of a new, cell culture-derived vaccinia virus vaccine administered intradermally and intramuscularly with the licensed vaccinia vaccine administered by scarification. Cutaneous pox lesions developed in a higher(More)
Elastase-induced emphysema in hamsters was studied using pulmonary function tests in an effort to develop techniques for determining the effects of air pollutants on the progression of this disease. Single intratracheal injections of 6, 12, or 24 units of porcine pancreatic elastase produced dose-related changes in pulmonary function after 4 wk when(More)
The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) diurnal cycle found in urban communities usually consists of a low basal concentration upon which are superimposed higher concentration peaks or spikes of short duration. Various components of this environmental exposure mode were examined to assess effects of urban exposure profiles on susceptibility to infectious pulmonary(More)
A comparison of the concentration-response effects of inhaled ozone (O3) and phosgene (COCl2) in different species of laboratory animals was made in order to better understand the influence of the choice of species in inhalation toxicity studies. The effect of 4-h exposures to ozone at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppm, and to COCl2 and 0.1, 0.2,(More)
The effects of single and multiple (5 and 20) 3-h inhalation exposures to aerosols of arsenic trioxide on the pulmonary defense system of mice were investigated. Arsenic trioxide mist was generated from an aqueous solution and dried to produce particulate aerosols of 0.4 micron mass median aerodynamic diameter. Aerosol mass concentration ranged from 125 to(More)