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BACKGROUND Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organisation (WHO) collects mortality data coded using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) code. METHODS We analysed IHD deaths world-wide between 1995 and 2009 and used the UN population database to calculate age-specific and(More)
Renal denervation (RDN) may lower blood pressure (BP); however, it is unclear whether medication changes may be confounding results. Furthermore, limited data exist on pattern of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response—particularly in those prescribed aldosterone antagonists at the time of RDN. We examined all patients treated with RDN for(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the time course of clinical events in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) trials. BACKGROUND Recent randomized controlled trial results suggest that in heart failure with narrow QRS, biventricular pacing (CRT) may increase mortality. The authors proposed implant complications as the cause, rather than a progressive(More)
Previous studies have found a 3-10-fold amplification and overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene in about 32% of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of increased expression of the cyclin D1 protein in Barrett's esophagus. Using 69 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human esophageal specimens,(More)
BACKGROUND Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and its prevention is a public health priority. METHOD We analysed worldwide IHD mortality data from the World Health Organisation as of February 2014 by country, age and income. Age-standardised mortality rates by country were calculated. We constructed a cartogram which is(More)
OBJECTIVE Discussions about statin efficacy in cardiovascular prevention are always based on data from blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing statin to placebo; however, discussion of side effects is not. Clinicians often assume symptoms occurring with statins are caused by statins, encouraging discontinuation. We test this assumption and(More)
BACKGROUND Primary prevention guidelines focus on risk, often assuming negligible aversion to medication, yet most patients discontinue primary prevention statins within 3 years. We quantify real-world distribution of medication disutility and separately calculate the average utilities for a range of risk strata. METHOD AND RESULTS We randomly sampled 360(More)
BACKGROUND In at-risk patients with left ventricular dysfunction, implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) prolong life. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators are increasingly implanted for primary prevention and therefore into lower risk patients. Trial data have demonstrated the benefit of these devices but does not provide an estimate of(More)
In clinical practice, echocardiographers are often unkeen to make the significant time investment to make additional multiple measurements of Doppler velocity. Main hurdle to obtaining multiple measurements is the time required to manually trace a series of Doppler traces. To make it easier to analyze more beats, we present the description of an application(More)