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CONTEXT Recent data regarding the consequences of untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the expansion of treatment choices for antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced patients warrant an update of the International AIDS Society-USA guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults with HIV infection. OBJECTIVES To(More)
BACKGROUND Cannabinoid use could potentially alter HIV RNA levels by two mechanisms: immune modulation or cannabinoid-protease inhibitor interactions (because both share cytochrome P-450 metabolic pathways). OBJECTIVE To determine the short-term effects of smoked marijuana on the viral load in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN Randomized,(More)
CONTEXT New trial data and drug regimens that have become available in the last 2 years warrant an update to guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in resource-rich settings. OBJECTIVE To provide current recommendations for the treatment of adult HIV infection with ART and use of(More)
IMPORTANCE New data and antiretroviral regimens expand treatment choices in resource-rich settings and warrant an update of recommendations to treat adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE To provide updated treatment recommendations for adults with HIV, emphasizing when to start treatment; what treatment to start; the use of(More)
OBJECTIVE Lipid lowering therapy is used increasingly in persons with HIV infection in the absence of safety data or information on drug interactions with antiretroviral agents. The primary objectives of this study were to examine the effects of ritonavir (RTV) plus saquinavir soft-gel (SQVsgc) capsules on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin, simvastatin,(More)
BACKGROUND Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is accompanied by hypertension and a cardiovascular mortality. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) occurs in hypertension but has not been fully investigated in HPT despite the vasoactive influences of parathyroid hormone. METHODS Twenty-five HPT patients and 25 normocalcemic control subjects,(More)
We assessed metabolic changes for darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) once daily (qd) versus atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) qd with fixed-dose tenofovir/emtricitabine. This was a phase 4, multicenter, open-label, randomized exploratory study. Treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected adults received DRV/r 800/100 mg qd or ATV/r 300/100 mg qd, both with emtricitabine/tenofovir(More)
Efavirenz (EFV) is associated with hyperlipidemia when used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. EFV is a mixed inducer/inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isozyme and may interact with hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors that are primarily metabolized via CYP3A4. To assess the drug-drug interaction of EFV used in(More)
Evidence-based guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were prepared by an expert panel of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace those published in 2004. The guidelines are intended for use by health care providers who care for(More)